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Donor human milk for very low birth weights: patterns of usage, outcomes, and unanswered questions.

Curr Opin Pediatr; 27(2): 172-6, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25689453


PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Donor milk usage in the United States has increased substantially over the past 10 years. Between 2007 and 2011, donor milk use in level 3 and 4 neonatal ICUs increased from 25 to 45%. RECENT FINDINGS: Most centers have written protocols based on birth weight or gestational age, and give donor milk in an effort to prevent necrotizing enterocolitis. The evidence for protection against necrotizing enterocolitis using bovine-fortified donor milk vs. formula is limited, although the exclusive human milk diet seems to offer protection compared to diets containing formula. Adequate growth can be achieved with donor milk fortified with either bovine or human milk-derived fortifiers, but use of additional fortification and protein supplementation may be required. Several randomized trials of donor milk vs. formula are ongoing in the very low birth weight population in North America that can answer important questions. SUMMARY: Further research is needed before donor milk and the exclusive human milk diet are considered the standard of care.

Donated breast milk stored in banks versus breast milk purchased online.

Can Fam Physician; 61(2): 143-6, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25676644


QUESTION: One of my patients asked if she could buy human milk on the Internet to feed her infant if the need arose. Is using donated breast milk from the milk bank safer than buying it online? ANSWER: The World Health Organization and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommend the use of donated breast milk as the first alternative when maternal milk is not available, but the Canadian Paediatric Society does not endorse the sharing of unprocessed human milk. Human breast milk stored in milk banks differs from donor breast milk available via the Internet owing to its rigorous donor-selection process, frequent quality assurance inspections, regulated transport process, and pasteurization in accordance with food preparation guidelines set out by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency. Most samples purchased online contain Gram-negative bacteria or have a total aerobic bacteria count of more than 10(4) colony-forming units per millilitre; they also exhibit higher mean total aerobic bacteria counts, total Gram-negative bacteria counts, coliform bacteria counts, and Staphylococcus spp counts than milk bank samples do. Growth of most bacteria species is associated with the number of days in transit, which suggests poor collection, storage, or shipping practices for milk purchased online.

Effect of digestion and storage of human milk on free fatty acid concentration and cytotoxicity.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr; 59(3): 365-73, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24840512


OBJECTIVES: Fat is digested in the intestine into free fatty acids (FFAs), which are detergents and therefore toxic to cells at micromolar concentration. The mucosal barrier protects cells in the adult intestine, but this barrier may not be fully developed in premature infants. Lipase-digested infant formula, but not fresh human milk, has elevated FFAs and is cytotoxic to intestinal cells, and therefore could contribute to intestinal injury in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), but even infants exclusively fed breast milk may develop NEC. Our objective was to determine whether stored milk and milk from donor milk (DM) banks could also become cytotoxic, especially after digestion. METHODS: We exposed cultured rat intestinal epithelial cells or human neutrophils to DM and milk collected fresh and stored at 4°C or -20°C for up to 12 weeks and then treated for 2 hours (37°C) with 0.1 or 1 mg/mL pancreatic lipase and/or trypsin and chymotrypsin. RESULTS: DM and milk stored 3 days (at 4°C or -20°C) and then digested were cytotoxic. Storage at -20°C for 8 and 12 weeks resulted in an additional increase in cytotoxicity. Protease digestion decreased, but did not eliminate cell death. CONCLUSIONS: Present storage practices may allow milk to become cytotoxic and contribute to intestinal damage in NEC.

Evaluación de la recolección domiciliaria realizada por un banco de leche humana de un hospital universitario de Brasil. / [Evaluation of home collection performed by a human milk bank in a university hospital in Brazil].

Salud Publica Mex; 56(3): 245-50, 2014 May-Jun.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25272175


OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of procedures during household milking and transport of human milk associated with their quality control. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 48 donors registered in the Human Milk Bank of the Clinics Hospital of the Federal University at Uberlândia. Observations were made during home visits. A checklist was elaborated according to the technical standards for human milk banks, been associated with physical-chemical, and microbiological controls. The chi-square test, logistic regression and Spearman test (p< 0.05) were used for data analysis. RESULTS: The results suggest that most donors assimilated the guidelines of the milk bank staff and procedures were satisfactorily performed. CONCLUSION: It could be demonstrated that milking and home collection are safe and effective ways for obtaining donated human milk.

Serum phenylalanine in preterm newborns fed different diets of human milk, / Fenilalanina plasmática em recém-nascidos pré-termo alimentados com diferentes dietas de leite humano,

J Pediatr; 90(5): 518-522, Sep-Oct/2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-723168


Objective: To evaluate phenylalanine plasma profile in preterm newborns fed different human milk diets. Methods: Twenty-four very-low weight preterm newborns were distributed randomly in three groups with different feeding types: Group I: banked human milk plus 5% commercial fortifier with bovine protein, Group II: banked human milk plus evaporated fortifier derived from modified human milk, Group III: banked human milk plus lyophilized fortifier derived from modified human milk. The newborns received the group diet when full diet was attained at 15 ± 2 days. Plasma amino acid analysis was performedon the first and last day of feeding. Comparison among groups was performed by statistical tests: one way ANOVA with Tukey's post-test using SPSS software, version 20.0 (IBM Corp, NY, USA), considering a significance level of 5%. Results: Phenylalanine levels in the first and second analysis were, respectively, in Group I: 11.9 ± 1.22 and 29.72 ± 0.73; in Group II: 11.72 ± 1.04 and 13.44 ± 0.61; and in Group III: 11.3 ± 1.18 and 15.42 ± 0.83 μmol/L. Conclusion: The observed results demonstrated that human milk with fortifiers derived from human milk acted as a good substratum for preterm infant feeding both in the evaporated or the lyophilized form, without significant increases in plasma phenylalanine levels in comparison to human milk with commercial fortifier. .
Objetivo: Avaliar o perfil plasmático do aminoácido fenilalanina em recém-nascidos pré-termo alimentados com diferentes dietas de leite humano. Métodos: Foram estudados 24 recém-nascidos pré-termo de muito baixo peso, distribuídos em três grupos com diferentes dietas: Grupo I: leite humano de banco com 5% de aditivo comercial para leite humano com proteína de origem bovina (LHB-AC); Grupo II: leite humano de banco com aditivo de leite humano modificado evaporado (LHB-E); e Grupo III: leite humano de banco com aditivo de leite humano modificado liofilizado (LHB-L). Os recém-nascidos receberam a dieta definida para o grupo quando alcançaram dieta plena por 15 ± 2 dias. A análise do aminoácido plasmático foi feita no primeiro e último dias da dieta. A comparação entre os grupos foi realizada por meio do teste ANOVA de uma via, seguido pelo pós-teste de Tukey, utilizando-se o software SPSS (IBM Corp, NY, EUA), versão 20.0, e considerando um nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: As concentrações plasmáticas do aminoácido fenilalanina na primeira e segunda análises foram, respectivamente, no Grupo I (LHB-AC) 11,9±1,22 e 29,72±0,73; no Grupo II (LHB-E) 11,72±1,04 e 13,44±0,61; e no Grupo III 11,3±1,18 e 15,42±0,83 umol/L. Conclusão: Os resultados encontrados demonstram que o leite humano com aditivos do próprio leite humano comportou-se como um bom substrato para alimentação do recém-nascido pré-termo, tanto na forma evaporada como liofilizada, sem levar a aumentos significativos na concentração plasmática de fenilalanina em comparação ao leite humano com aditivo comercial. .
Biblioteca responsável: BR1.1

Comparação entre suplementos homólogos do leite humano e um suplemento comercial para recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso / Comparison between homologous human milk supplements and a commercial supplement for very low birth weight infants

J Pediatr; 88(2): 119-124, mar.-abr. 2012. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-623456


OBJETIVOS: Descrever a metodologia de preparo de dois aditivos, líquido e em pó, derivados do leite humano e comparar a constituição com aditivo comercial FM85®. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizadas 40 amostras de leite humano para o preparo dos suplementos líquido e em pó. Ambos passaram por três fases de preparo: desnate, evaporação e retirada da lactose. Após essas fases, o suplemento líquido está pronto, e o em pó necessita da quarta fase - a liofilização. Em cada amostra dos suplementos líquido e em pó, foram adicionados, respectivamente, 80 mL (grupo I) e 100 mL (grupo II) de pool de leite humano de banco. Para comparação, 20 amostras de 100 mL do pool foram acrescidas de 5 g do suplemento FM85® (Nestlé) (grupo III). Realizaram-se análises de hidratos de carbono, proteína, lipídios, cálcio, fósforo, sódio, osmolalidade e conteúdo calórico, considerando diferença significativa p < 0,05. RESULTADOS: Os grupos I, II e III mostraram, respectivamente, os seguintes resultados: proteínas = 1,81, 2,38 e 1,96 g/dL (p < 0,001); hidratos de carbono = 6,70, 7,25 e 10,06 g/dL (p = 0,006); gordura = 3,75, 3,75 e 3,73 g/dL (p = 0,96); cálcio = 36,92, 44,75 e 79,37 mg/dL (p = 0,001); fósforo = 20,02, 23,28 e 56,30 mg/dL (p = 0,02); sódio = 14,32, 14,40 e 20,33 mEq/L (p = 0,143); osmolalidade = 391,45, 412,47 e 431, 00 mOsmol/kgH2O (p = 0,074); e conteúdo calórico = 67,78, 72,27 e 81,65 kcal (p = 0,001). CONCLUSÃO: Os aditivos estudados diferem significativamente do aditivo comercial FM85® em alguns de seus constituintes, e a sua constituição pode ou não atender às quantidades de nutrientes propostas pelas recomendações mais recentes.
OBJECTIVES: To describe the methodology for the preparation of two additives derived from human milk, liquid and powdered, and to compare this composition with the commercial additive FM85®. METHODS: For the preparation of the liquid and powdered supplements, 40 samples of human milk were used. Both supplements have been through three preparation phases: skimming, evaporation and lactose removal. After these phases, the liquid supplement is ready, and the powdered requires a fourth phase - lyophilization. To each sample of the liquid and powdered supplements were added, respectively, 80 mL (group I) and 100 mL (group II) of pooled banked human milk. For comparison, 20 samples of 100 mL of the pool were added to 5 g of the FM85® supplement (Nestlé) (group III). Analyses of carbohydrates, protein, lipids, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, osmolality and caloric content were performed, considering a significant difference p < 0.05. RESULTS: Groups I, II, and III showed, respectively, the following results: protein = 1.81, 2.38 and 1.96 g/dL (p < 0.001); carbohydrates = 6.70, 7.25 and 10.06 g/dL (p = 0.006); fat = 3.75, 3.75 and 3.73 g/dL (p = 0.96); calcium = 36.92, 44.75 and 79.37 mg/dL (p = 0.001); phosphorus = 20.02, 23.28 and 56.30 mg/dL (p = 0.02); sodium = 14.32, 14.40 and 20.33 mEq/L (p = 0.143); osmolality = 391.45, 412.47 and 431.00 mOsmol/kgH2O (p = 0.074); and caloric content = 67.78, 72.27 and 81.65 kcal (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: The studied additives differ significantly from the commercial additive FM85® in some of its components, and its composition may or may not meet the quantity of nutrients suggested by the most recent recommendations.
Biblioteca responsável: BR1.1

Annotation and structural analysis of sialylated human milk oligosaccharides.

J Proteome Res; 10(2): 856-68, 2011 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21133381


Sialylated human milk oligosaccharides (SHMOs) are important components of human milk oligosaccharides. Sialic acids are typically found on the nonreducing end and are known binding sites for pathogens and aid in neonates' brain development. Due to their negative charge and hydrophilic nature, they also help modulate cell-cell interactions. It has also been shown that sialic acids are involved in regulating the immune response and aid in brain development. In this study, the enriched SHMOs from pooled milk sample were analyzed by HPLC-Chip/QTOF MS. The instrument employs a microchip-based nano-LC column packed with porous graphitized carbon (PGC) to provide excellent isomer separation for SHMOs with highly reproducible retention time. The precursor ions were further examined with collision-induced dissociation (CID). By applying the proper collision energy, isomers can be readily differentiated by diagnostic peaks and characteristic fragmentation patterns. A set of 30 SHMO structures with retention times, accurate masses, and MS/MS spectra was deduced and incorporated into an HMO library. When combined with previously determined neutral components, a library with over 70 structures is obtained allowing high-throughput oligosaccharide structure identification.

Development of an annotated library of neutral human milk oligosaccharides.

J Proteome Res; 9(8): 4138-51, 2010 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20578730


Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) perform a number of functions including serving as prebiotics to stimulate the growth of beneficial intestinal bacteria, as receptor analogues to inhibit binding of pathogens, and as substances that promote postnatal brain development. There is further evidence that HMOs participate in modulating the human immune system. Because the absorption, catabolism, and biological function of oligosaccharides (OS) have strong correlations with their structures, structure elucidation is key to advancing this research. Oligosaccharides are produced by competing enzymes that provide the large structural diversity and heterogeneity that characterizes this class of compounds. Unlike the proteome, there is no template for oligosaccharides, making it difficult to rapidly identify oligosaccharide structures. In this research, annotation of the neutral free oligosaccharides in milk is performed to develop a database for the rapid identification of oligosaccharide structures. Our strategy incorporates high performance nanoflow liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry for characterizing HMO structures. HPLC-Chip/TOF MS provides a sensitive and quantitative method for sample profiling. The reproducible retention time and accurate mass can be used to rapidly identify the OS structures in HMO samples. A library with 45 neutral OS structures has been constructed. The structures include information regarding the epitopes such as Lewis type, as well as information regarding the secretor status.

Banked preterm versus banked term human milk to promote growth and development in very low birth weight infants.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev; (6): CD007644, 2010 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20556782


BACKGROUND: Human milk banking has been available in many countries for the last three decades. The milk provided from milk banking is predominantly term breast milk, but some milk banks provide preterm breast milk. There are a number of differences between donor term and donor preterm human milk. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of banked preterm milk compared with banked term milk regarding growth and developmental outcome in very low birth weight infants (infants weighing less than 1500 g). SEARCH STRATEGY: We used the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group, including a search of the Cochrane Neonatal Group specialized register and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, January 2010). We searched the computerised bibliographic databases MEDLINE (1966 to February 2010), EMBASE (1988 to February 2010) and Web of Science (1975 to February 2010). We searched reference lists of all selected articles, review articles and the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials. We also searched abstracts from neonatal and pediatric meetings (PAS electronic version from 2000 to 2009, ESPR hand search from 2000 to 2009). We applied no language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing banked donor preterm milk with banked donor term milk regarding growth and developmental outcomes in very low birth weight infants DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We planned to perform assessment of methodology regarding blinding of randomisation, intervention and outcome measurements as well as completeness of follow-up. We planned to evaluate treatment effect using a fixed-effect model using relative risk (RR), relative risk reduction, risk difference (RD) and number needed to treat (NNT) for categorical data and using mean, standard deviation and weighted mean difference (WMD) for continuous data. We planned an evaluation of heterogeneity. MAIN RESULTS: No studies met the inclusion criteria. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There are no randomised trials that compare preterm banked milk to banked term milk to promote growth and development in very low birth weight infants.

Growth of very low birth weight infants fed with milk from a human milk bank selected according to the caloric and protein value

Clinics; 65(8): 751-756, June 2010. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-556999


OBJECTIVE: To describe growth and clinical evolution of very low birth weight infants fed during hospital stay with milk from a human milk bank according to the caloric-protein value. METHOD: Forty very low birth weight infants were included: 10 were fed milk from their own mothers (GI), and 30 were fed human milk bank > 700 cal/L and 2 g/dL of protein. Growth curves were adjusted using nonlinear regression to the measured growth parameters. RESULTS: full enteral diet was reached in 6.3 days by GI and in 10.8 by GII; a weight of 2 kg was reached in 7.3 weeks for GI and in 7.8 for GII. In GI, 3/10 (33.3 percent) and in GII, 7/30 (23.3 percent) developed sepsis. Necrotizing enterocolitis did not occur in GI, but in 3/30 (10.0 percent) in GII. GI presented with urinary calcium > 4 mg/L in 1/10 (10.0 percent), urinary phosphorus (Pu) <1 mg/L in 10/10 (100 percent), and Ca/Cr >0.6 ratio in 1/10 (10.0 percent) of the cases; in GII, no children presented alterations of the urinary calcium or the Ca and Cr ratio, and Pu was <1 mg/L in 19/30 (63.3 percent). In terms of growth the 50th percentile for GI was a weight gain of 12.1 g/day (GI) vs. 15.8 g/day (GII), a length gain of 0.75 cm/week (GI) vs. 1.02 cm/week (GII), and a head circumference gain of 0.74 cm/week (GI) vs. 0.76 cm/week (GII). CONCLUSIONS: Human milk bank allowed a satisfactory growth and good clinical evolution for very low birth weight infants.
Biblioteca responsável: BR1.1

Descarte de leite humano doado a Banco de Leite antes e após medidas para reduzir a quantidade de leite imprópria para consumo / Disposal of human milk donated to a human milk bank before and after measures to reduce the amount of milk unsuitable for consumption

J Pediatr; 86(4): 290-294, jul.-ago. 2010. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-558819


OBJETIVO: Avaliar as causas do descarte do leite humano doado, bem como o impacto das medidas adotadas para diminuir a quantidade de leite impróprio. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se um estudo observacional comparativo do tipo quasi-experimental com populações distintas de doadoras externas nos anos de 2006 e 2008. Utilizou-se, em 2006, um formulário simples para registrar os critérios de descarte do leite doado e o diálogo com a doadora para encontrar o motivo das alterações do leite. Para as doadoras de 2008, aplicou-se um checklist de orientação detalhada da técnica de coleta e pré-estocagem. Seguiu-se o levantamento dos critérios de descarte após a intervenção por meio do mesmo formulário aplicado em 2006. Definiu-se como um "caso" todos os frascos de leite descartados por dia de uma mesma doadora. Os dados foram analisados pelos cálculos de comparação de proporções para os anos de 2006 e 2008. RESULTADOS: Vinte e quatro por cento do leite coletado foi descartado em 2006, enquanto que, em 2008, apenas 10,5 por cento do leite foi descartado. Houve redução significativa no descarte de leite para os itens: cheiro de cigarro; esquecimento do leite fora, no corpo ou na porta da geladeira; problemas com o freezer; abrir muito geladeira e freezer; prazo de validade vencida; e casos não identificados. Os itens primeira coleta sem orientação, uso de frasco não conforme, transporte do leite do trabalho para casa e orientação indireta apresentaram aumentos significativos de descarte. CONCLUSÕES: A aplicação do checklist passo a passo teve um impacto positivo na redução do volume de leite doado descartado e modificou as frequências das causas desse descarte, eliminando algumas dessas causas.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the causes of disposal of donated human milk and the impact of the measures taken to reduce the amount of milk unsuitable for consumption. METHODS: A quasi-experimental, observational, comparative study was conducted with different populations of external donors in 2006 and 2008. In 2006, a simple form was used to record the criteria for disposal of the donated milk. We also interviewed the donors to find the reason of changes in the milk. In 2008, a checklist containing comprehensive guidance for milk collection and pre-storage was handed out to the donors. Next, we continued to survey the disposal criteria after the intervention using the same form administered in 2006. A case was defined as all bottles of milk of the same donor discarded per day. Data were analyzed by calculations based on comparison of proportions for 2006 and 2008. RESULTS: Twenty-four percent of the milk collected was discarded in 2006, while in 2008 only 10.5 percent of the milk was discarded. There was significant reduction in the disposal of milk for the items: cigarette odor; forgetting the milk outside the refrigerator, inside it or on its door; problems with the freezer; frequent opening of the refrigerator and freezer; expiration date; and unidentified cases. However, there was a significant increase in milk disposal for first milk collection without guidance; use of inappropriate bottle; milk transportation from work to home; and indirect guidance. CONCLUSIONS: The use of the step-by-step checklist had a positive impact on the reduction of the volume of donated milk discarded and changed the frequency of the causes of disposal, eliminating some of these causes.
Biblioteca responsável: BR1.1

Breast milk donation and social support: reports of women donors / Doação de leite humano e apoio social: relatos de mulheres doadoras / Donación de leche humana y apoyo social: relatos de mujeres donadoras

Rev Lat Am Enfermagem; 18(3): 381-389, May-June 2010. tab
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol, Português | LILACS | ID: lil-554468


The study aimed to characterize the behavior of human milk donation and to describe the informal social and formal institutional support, according to reports from women donors. It is an exploratory, cross-sectional, descriptive study using domicile interviews based on structured and semi-structured scripts. The participants were 36 women enrolled in two human milk banks of the public health system of the Federal District. Statistical analysis of quantitative data and categorical content analysis of qualitative data were performed. Categories of reasons that most influenced the frequency of expressing were: food, time availability, negative emotions and fluid intake. The manual expressing technique was reported as predominant. The use of breast shells was cited by almost a third of the donors. Most frequent suggestions for improving institutional support were more attention and support from the milk banks for the donor. The study may serve as a stimulus for the implementation of technical and political strategies to encourage this practice.
O estudo objetivou caracterizar o comportamento de doação de leite humano e descrever o apoio social informal e institucional, segundo relatos de mulheres doadoras. Trata-se de estudo exploratório, descritivo, de corte transversal, com entrevista domiciliar baseada em roteiros estruturado e semiestruturado. Participaram 36 mulheres cadastradas em dois bancos de leite humano da rede pública de saúde do Distrito Federal. Foram realizadas análises estatísticas descritivas de dados quantitativos e categorial de conteúdo dos dados qualitativos. Categorias de motivos que mais influenciaram na frequência da ordenha: alimentação, disponibilidade de tempo, emoções negativas e ingestão de líquidos. A ordenha manual foi referida como técnica predominante. O uso da "conchinha" foi citado por quase um terço das doadoras. Sugestões mais frequentes para melhorar o apoio institucional foram maior atenção e apoio dos bancos de leite às doadoras. O estudo poderá servir de estímulo para implementação de estratégias técnicas e políticas que favoreçam essa prática.
El estudio objetivó caracterizar el comportamiento envuelto en la donación de leche humana y describir el apoyo social informal e institucional, según relatos de mujeres donadoras. Se trata de un estudio exploratorio, descriptivo, de corte transversal, con entrevista domiciliar basada en guiones estructurados y semiestructurados. Participaron 36 mujeres registradas en dos bancos de leche humana de la red pública de salud del Distrito Federal. Fue realizado el análisis estadístico descriptivo de los datos cuantitativos, y el categórico de contenido de los datos cualitativos. Las categorías de motivos que más influyeron en la frecuencia de la extracción de leche: alimentación, disponibilidad de tiempo, emociones negativas e ingestión de líquidos. La extracción de leche manual fue referida como técnica predominante. El uso de la "conchita" fue citado por casi un tercio de las donadoras. Sugerencias más frecuentes para mejorar el apoyo institucional fueron mayor atención y apoyo de los bancos de leche a las donadoras. El estudio podrá servir de estímulo para implementación de estrategias técnicas y políticas que favorezcan esa práctica.
Biblioteca responsável: BR1.1

Breast milk donation and social support: reports of women donors.

Rev Lat Am Enfermagem; 18(3): 381-9, 2010 May-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20721427


The study aimed to characterize the behavior of human milk donation and to describe the informal social and formal institutional support, according to reports from women donors. It is an exploratory, cross-sectional, descriptive study using domicile interviews based on structured and semi-structured scripts. The participants were 36 women enrolled in two human milk banks of the public health system of the Federal District. Statistical analysis of quantitative data and categorical content analysis of qualitative data were performed. Categories of reasons that most influenced the frequency of expressing were: food, time availability, negative emotions and fluid intake. The manual expressing technique was reported as predominant. The use of breast shells was cited by almost a third of the donors. Most frequent suggestions for improving institutional support were more attention and support from the milk banks for the donor. The study may serve as a stimulus for the implementation of technical and political strategies to encourage this practice.

Doação de leite humano: experiência de mulheres doadoras / Donación de leche humana: experiencia de mujeres donantes / Breast milk donation: women's donor experience

Rev Saude Publica; 43(1): 70-77, fev. 2009. tab
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: lil-503176


OBJETIVO: Descrever características do comportamento de doação e identificar motivos, crenças e sentimentos relativos a essa prática, segundo relatos de mulheres doadoras. Foram investigados ainda aspectos pessoais e socioambientais de mulheres doadoras e ex-doadoras que parecem afetar a conduta de doação. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo exploratório, descritivo e transversal com mulheres doadoras cadastradas em dois bancos de leite da rede pública de saúde do Distrito Federal, com coleta de dados no período de julho a setembro de 2005. Participaram 36 mulheres com idades que variaram de 14 a 33 anos (média=24,78; dp=5,22), com diferentes níveis de escolaridade, sendo 58,3 por cento primigestas. O procedimento de coleta de dados baseou-se em entrevistas domiciliares. Além das análises estatísticas descritivas, procedeu-se à análise de conteúdo categorial dos dados qualitativos. RESULTADOS: Os motivos mais citados para a doação de leite foram altruísmo e excesso de produção lática. O intervalo de tempo mais freqüente para a concretização da doação foi de 13 dias após o parto. Contato telefônico com o banco de leite foi a conduta adotada pela maioria das participantes (n=22) para obtenção de informações que favoreceram o início do processo de doação. CONCLUSÕES: Foram identificados aspectos psicossociais e experiências de mulheres doadoras que poderão contribuir para o fortalecimento da rede de apoio social formal e informal para doação, além de servir de estímulo para a implementação de estratégias técnicas e políticas que favoreçam a prática de doação.
OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of donation behavior and identify reasons, beliefs and feelings relative to this practice, based on the reports of donor women. Personal and social-environmental aspects, which seem to affect donation behavior in donors and former donors, were also investigated. METHODS: An exploratory, descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out with women donors at two breast-milk banks within the public health system of the Brazilian Federal District. Data was collected from July to September 2005. The participants were 36 women, aged 14 to 33 years (average=24.78; SD=5.22), with different levels of schooling, 58.3 percent of which were first-time mothers. Data gathering was based on interviews carried out during home visits. In addition to descriptive statistical analyses of quantitative data, a qualitative data categorical analysis was also performed. RESULTS: The most frequently reported reasons for donating breast milk were altruism and excess milk production. The most frequent time interval for donation was 13 days after delivery. Contact by phone with the milk bank was the most common means of communication used by the majority of participants (n=22) to obtain information that enabled the donating process. CONCLUSIONS: Psychosocial aspects identified and the experience of donors can contribute to the empowerment of the formal and informal social donation-support network, in addition to serving as a driver for the implementation of technical and policy strategies in promoting future donation practices.
OBJETIVO: Describir características del comportamiento de donación e identificar motivos, creencias y sentimientos relacionados con esa práctica, según relatos de mujeres donantes. Fueron investigados también aspectos personales y socioambientales de mujeres donantes y ex-donantes que parecen afectar la conducta de donación. MÉTODOS: Fue realizado estudio exploratorio, descriptivo y transversal con mujeres donantes registradas en dos bancos de leche de la red pública de salud del Distrito Federal de Brasil, con colecta de datos en el período de julio a septiembre de 2005. Participaron 36 mujeres con edad que varió de 14 a 33 años (promedio = 24,78; desviación standard= 5,22), con diferentes niveles de escolaridad, siendo 58,3 por ciento primerizas. El procedimiento de colecta de datos se basó en entrevistas domiciliares. Además de los análisis estadísticos descriptivos, se procedió al análisis de contenido categórico de los datos cualitativos. RESULTADOS: Los motivos más citados para la donación de leche fueron altruismo y exceso de producción láctica. El intervalo de tiempo más frecuente para la concretar la donación fue de 13 días posterior al parto. Contacto telefónico con el banco de leche fue la conducta adoptada por la mayoría de las participantes (n=22) para obtención de informaciones que favorecieron el inicio del proceso de donación. CONCLUSIONES: Fueron identificados aspectos psicosociales y experiencias de mujeres donantes que pudieron contribuir para el fortalecimiento de la red de apoyo social formal e informal para donación, además de servir de estímulo para la implementación de estrategias técnicas y políticas que favorezcan la práctica de donación.
Biblioteca responsável: BR1.1

Análise sensorial do leite humano ordenhado e sua carga microbiana / Sensorial analysis of expressed human milk and its microbial load

J Pediatr; 84(2): 181-184, Mar.-Apr. 2008. tab
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: lil-480606


OBJETIVO: Verificar a existência de relação entre a presença de off-flavor e a carga de microrganismos em amostras de leite humano ordenhado rejeitadas pelo controle de qualidade de um banco de leite humano. MÉTODOS: Testou-se em 30 amostras de leite humano ordenhado com presença de off-flavor a ocorrência dos seguintes microrganismos: aeróbios mesófilos, psicrotróficos, proteolíticos, proteolíticos-psicrotróficos, termodúricos, termodúricos-psicrotróficos, bactérias lácticas, lipolíticos, bolores e leveduras e Staphylococcus aureus, coliformes totais e coliformes termotolerantes, de acordo com métodos oficiais. RESULTADOS: A ocorrência percentual dos microrganismos foi a seguinte: aeróbios mesófilos = 80 por cento; psicrotróficos = 36,7 por cento; proteolíticos = 46,7 por cento; proteolíticos-psicrotróficos = 16,7 por cento; termodúricos = 6,7 por cento; termodúricos-psicrotróficos = 0 por cento; bactérias lácticas = 50 por cento; lipolíticos = 10 por cento; bolores e leveduras = 6,7 por cento; S. aureus = 30 por cento; coliformes totais = 53,3 por cento; e coliformes termotolerantes = 16,7 por cento. CONCLUSÃO: Observou-se relação consistente entre a presença de off-flavor e elevadas contagens dos microrganismos nas amostras analisadas, o que reforça a importância da pesquisa de off-flavor na seleção e no controle da qualidade dos bancos de leite humano.
OBJECTIVE: To verify the existence of a relationship between presence of off-flavor and microorganism load in quality control rejected samples of expressed human milk from a donor milk bank. METHODS: A total of 30 samples of expressed human milk with off-flavor were tested for the occurrence of the following microorganisms: aerobic mesophilic, psycrotrophic, proteolytic, psycrotrophic proteolytic, thermoduric, psycrotrophic thermoduric, lactate and lipolytic bacteria, molds and yeasts and Staphylococcus aureus, total coliforms and thermophilic coliforms, in accordance with official methods. RESULTS: Percentage occurrence of microorganisms was as follows: aerobic mesophilic = 80 percent; psycrotrophic = 36.7 percent; proteolytic = 46.7 percent; psycrotrophic proteolytic = 16.7 percent; thermoduric = 6.7 percent; psycrotrophic thermoduric = 0 percent; lactate bacteria = 50 percent; lipolytic = 10 percent; molds and yeasts = 6.7 percent; S. aureus = 30 percent; total coliforms = 53.3 percent; and thermophilic coliforms = 16.7 percent. CONCLUSION: A consistent relationship between presence of off-flavor and elevated microorganism counting was observed in the analyzed samples. This correlation highlights the importance of off-flavor research during selection and quality control processes in human milk banks.
Biblioteca responsável: BR1.1

Efeito do tempo e da temperatura de estocagem nas determinações de acidez, cálcio, proteínas e lipídeos de leite de doadoras de bancos de leite humano / Effect of storage time and temperature on the acidity, calcium, protein and lipid content of milk from human milk banks

Rev. bras. saúde matern. infant; 8(3): 257-263, jul.-set. 2008. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-494154


OBJECTIVES: to verify the effect of three storage conditions on human milk acidity and to determine the quantity of lipids, total solids, ash, calcium, and total proteins. METHODS: the sample comprised healthy milk donors to the Human Milk Bank of the University Hospital of Maringá (n=37), State of Paraná, Brazil. The quantities of lipids, protein, total solids, ash and calcium were measured, as well as acidity. The study protocol included three storage conditions: time zero, after 4h storage at room temperature and after 24h under refrigeration. RESULTS: the average concentrations of nutrients found in this study were comparable to those described in milk from lactating mothers of developed countries or other Brazilian regions, which is suitable for feeding newborns. As for acidity, variations were observed between individuals for the storage conditions involving 4h and 24h, which did not occur for the condition of 0h. A weak correlation between the variables of acidity and protein content was observed, as well as for acidity and calcium. CONCLUSIONS: the acidity does not have a significant influence on the concentration of the nutrients, at least under the storage conditions studied here. The best way to preserve human milk is to freeze it immediately after collection.
OBJETIVOS: verificar o efeito de três condições de estocagem sobre a acidez do leite humano ordenhado, bem como determinar os seguintes constituintes do leite: gordura, sólidos totais, cinzas, cálcio e proteínas totais. MÉTODOS: as amostras foram obtidas a partir de doadoras do Banco de Leite Humano do Hospital Universitário de Maringá, Paraná, Brasil (n=37). Foram determinados os conteúdos de gordura, proteína, sólidos totais, cinzas e cálcio, além da determinação da acidez. O protocolo de pesquisa incluiu três condições de estocagem: tempo zero, 4h à temperatura ambiente e 24h sob refrigeração. RESULTADOS as concentrações médias de nutrientes encontradas eram comparáveis àquelas descritas em leite de nutrizes de outros países ou de outras regiões do país e adequadas para a alimentação de recém-nascidos. Os dados de acidez demonstraram alta variabilidade interindividual para as condições de estocagem à 4h e 24h, o que não aconteceu na estocagem imediata (0h). Observou-se fraca correlação entre as variáveis acidez e concentração de proteína, bem como entre acidez e teor de cálcio. CONCLUSÕES: a acidez não influenciou a concentração desses nutrientes, nas condições de estocagem estudadas, e que a melhor forma de se preservar o leite humano foi congelá-lo imediatamente após sua obtenção.
Biblioteca responsável: BR526.1

Nursing consultation in homecare for the milk bank of Antonio Pedro College Hospital: a space for educative actions

Online braz. j. nurs. (Online); 12(suplementar)out. 2013.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol, Português | LILACS | ID: lil-698483


Aim: To develop a standard instrument for nursing consultations with regard to homecare; to characterize the consultations in homecare, to establish its articulation with educational activities performed by the nurse and; to analyze the practice of this consultation, considering the point-of-view of the donor woman. Method: This is a descriptive research which adopts a qualitative approach. It was based on the scenario of a human breast milk bank at Antonio Pedro College Hospital in Niterói, Brazil. 22 women were interviewed which involved answering a semi-structured questionnaire. The data were grouped into two categories. Results: Analytical categories: home visits and the educative practice of the nurse; the home nursing consultation from the perspective of the nurturing woman. A standard instrument for nursing consultations was produced. Conclusion: The educational actions of the nurse during homecare have three main focuses: the motivation to breastfeed, the necessary caring for the baby and the mother, and the safe procedure when it comes to collecting human milk...
Biblioteca responsável: BR1342.1

Genomics of lactation: role of nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics in the fatty acid composition of human milk.

Br J Nutr; 118(3): 161-168, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28831952


Human milk covers the infant's nutrient requirements during the first 6 months of life. The composition of human milk progressively changes during lactation and it is influenced by maternal nutritional factors. Nowadays, it is well known that nutrients have the ability to interact with genes and modulate molecular mechanisms impacting physiological functions. This has led to a growing interest among researchers in exploring nutrition at a molecular level and to the development of two fields of study: nutrigenomics, which evaluates the influence of nutrients on gene expression, and nutrigenetics, which evaluates the heterogeneous individual response to nutrients due to genetic variation. Fatty acids are one of the nutrients most studied in relation to lactation given their biologically important roles during early postnatal life. Fatty acids modulate transcription factors involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism, which in turn causes a variation in the proportion of lipids in milk. This review focuses on understanding, on the one hand, the gene transcription mechanisms activated by maternal dietary fatty acids and, on the other hand, the interaction between dietary fatty acids and genetic variation in genes involved in lipid metabolism. Both of these mechanisms affect the fatty acid composition of human milk.
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