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Increased levels of Porphyromonas gingivalis are associated with ischemic and hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease in humans: an in vivo study

Ghizoni, Janaina Salomon; Taveira, Luís Antônio de Assis; Garlet, Gustavo Pompermaier; Ghizoni, Marcos Flávio; Pereira, Jefferson Ricardo; Dionísio, Thiago José; Brozoski, Daniel Thomas; Santos, Carlos Ferreira; Sant'Ana, Adriana Campos Passanezi.
J. appl. oral sci; 20(1): 104-112, Jan.-Feb. 2012. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | | ID: lil-618162
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the role of periodontal disease in the development of stroke or cerebral infarction in patients by evaluating the clinical periodontal conditions and the subgingival levels of periodontopathogens. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty patients with ischemic (I-CVA) or hemorrhagic (H-CVA) cerebrovascular episodes (test group) and 60 systemically healthy patients (control group) were evaluated for: probing depth, clinical attachment level, bleeding on probing and plaque index. Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans were both identified and quantified in subgingival plaque samples by conventional and real-time PCR, respectively. RESULTS: The test group showed a significant increase in each of the following parameters: pocket depth, clinical attachment loss, bleeding on probing, plaque index and number of missing teeth when compared to control values (p<0.05, unpaired t-test). Likewise, the test group had increased numbers of sites that were contaminated with P. gingivalis (60 percentx10 percent; p<0.001; chi-squared test) and displayed greater prevalence of periodontal disease, with an odds ratio of 48.06 (95 percent CI: 5.96-387.72; p<0.001). Notably, a positive correlation between probing depth and the levels of P. gingivalis in ischemic stroke was found (r=0.60; p=0.03; Spearman's rank correlation coefficient test). A. actinomycetemcomitans DNA was not detected in any of the groups by conventional or real-time PCR. CONCLUSIONS: Stroke patients had deeper pockets, more severe attachment loss, increased bleeding on probing, increased plaque indexes, and in their pockets harbored increased levels of P. gingivalis. These findings suggest that periodontal disease is a risk factor for the development of cerebral hemorrhage or infarction. Early treatment of periodontitis may counteract the development of cerebrovascular episodes.