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2.

Equity-oriented toolkit for health technology assessment and knowledge translation: application to scaling up of training and education for health workers.

Ueffing, Erin; Tugwell, Peter; Hatcher Roberts, Janet; Walker, Peter; Hamel, Nadia; Welch, Vivian
| Language(s): English
Human resources for health are in crisis worldwide, especially in economically disadvantaged areas and areas with high rates of HIV/AIDS in both health workers and patients. International organizations such as the Global Health Workforce Alliance have been established to address this crisis. A technical working group within the Global Health Workforce Alliance developed recommendations for scaling up education and training of health workers. The paper will illustrate how decision-makers can use evidence and tools from an equity-oriented toolkit to scale up training and education of health workers, following five recommendations of the technical working group. The Equity-Oriented Toolkit, developed by the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Knowledge Trans (more)
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3.

Why technology matters as much as science in improving healthcare.

Szczerba, Robert J; Huesch, Marco D
| Language(s): English
BACKGROUND: More than half a million new items of biomedical research are generated every year and added to Medline. How successful are we at applying this steady accumulation of scientific knowledge and so improving the practice of medicine in the USA? DISCUSSION: The conventional wisdom is that the US healthcare system is plagued by serious cost, access, safety and quality weaknesses. A comprehensive solution must involve the better translation of an abundance of clinical research into improved clinical practice.Yet the application of knowledge (i.e. technology) remains far less well funded and less visible than the generation, synthesis and accumulation of knowledge (i.e. science), and the two are only weakly integrated. Worse, technology is often seen merely as an a (more)
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4.

Taking knowledge users' knowledge needs into account in health: an evidence synthesis framework.

Wickremasinghe, Deepthi; Kuruvilla, Shyama; Mays, Nicholas; Avan, Bilal Iqbal
| Language(s): English
The increased demand for evidence-based practice in health policy in recent years has provoked a parallel increase in diverse evidence-based outputs designed to translate knowledge from researchers to policy makers and practitioners. Such knowledge translation ideally creates user-friendly outputs, tailored to meet information needs in a particular context for a particular audience. Yet matching users' knowledge needs to the most suitable output can be challenging. We have developed an evidence synthesis framework to help knowledge users, brokers, commissioners and producers decide which type of output offers the best 'fit' between 'need' and 'response'. We conducted a four-strand literature search for characteristics and methods of evidence synthesis outputs using data (more)
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5.

Involving patient in the early stages of health technology assessment (HTA): a study protocol.

Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Candas, Bernard; Desmartis, Marie; Gagnon, Johanne; La Roche, Daniel; Rhainds, Marc; Coulombe, Martin; Dipankui, Mylène Tantchou; Légaré, France
| Language(s): English
BACKGROUND: Public and patient involvement in the different stages of the health technology assessment (HTA) process is increasingly encouraged. The selection of topics for assessment, which includes identifying and prioritizing HTA questions, is a constant challenge for HTA agencies because the number of technologies requiring an assessment exceeds the resources available. Public and patient involvement in these early stages of HTA could make assessments more relevant and acceptable to them. Involving them in the development of the assessment plan is also crucial to optimize their influence and impact on HTA research. The project objectives are: 1) setting up interventions to promote patient participation in three stages of the HTA process: identification of HTA topics (more)
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6.

Health equity: evidence synthesis and knowledge translation methods.

Welch, Vivian A; Petticrew, Mark; O'Neill, Jennifer; Waters, Elizabeth; Armstrong, Rebecca; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Francis, Damian; Koehlmoos, Tracey Perez; Kristjansson, Elizabeth; Pantoja, Tomas; Tugwell, Peter
| Language(s): English
BACKGROUND: At the Rio Summit in 2011 on Social Determinants of Health, the global community recognized a pressing need to take action on reducing health inequities. This requires an improved evidence base on the effects of national and international policies on health inequities. Although systematic reviews are recognized as an important source for evidence-informed policy, they have been criticized for failing to assess effects on health equity. METHODS: This article summarizes guidance on both conducting systematic reviews with a focus on health equity and on methods to translate their findings to different audiences. This guidance was developed based on a series of methodology meetings, previous guidance, a recently developed reporting guideline for equity-focused s (more)
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7.

Teaching critical appraisal skills in healthcare settings.

Horsley, Tanya; Hyde, Chris; Santesso, Nancy; Parkes, Julie; Milne, Ruairidh; Stewart, Ruth
| Language(s): English
BACKGROUND: Critical appraisal is the process of assessing and interpreting evidence by systematically considering its validity, results and relevance to an individual's work. Within the last decade critical appraisal has been added as a topic to many medical school and UK Royal College curricula, and several continuing professional development ventures have been funded to provide further training. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2001. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of teaching critical appraisal skills to health professionals on the process of care, patient outcomes and knowledge of health professionals. SEARCH METHODS. We updated the search (see Appendix 1 for search strategies by database) and used those search strategies to search the Co (more)
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8.

Vaccines: specific features, simulation of impact and medico-economic modelling.

Launay, Odile; Hoch, Didier; Saint-Sardos, Christelle; Guillemot, Didier
| Language(s): English; French
In a context where a number of vaccinations have recently been recommended in France, and where a large number of vaccines are under development, the Round Table has reviewed the specific features of vaccines in France, namely clinical development, medico-economic modelling, evaluation and communication. In each of these domains, the key stages and processes to be improved have been identified, and proposals made. The main strategic challenges are to promote the development of vaccines in France by access to the large-scale monitoring of populations, to look ahead and coordinate the evaluation of vaccines by the various parties involved, to widen communication about vaccination strategies, in order to improve the perception of vaccines and the acceptability of vaccinati (more)
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9.

Impact of NIHR HTA Programme funded research on NICE clinical guidelines: a retrospective cohort.

Turner, Sheila; Bhurke, Sheetal; Cook, Andrew
| Language(s): English
BACKGROUND: It is vitally important that there is a connection between health research and clinical practice. Indications as to the impact of the research on evidence-based practice and policy can be obtained by tracking the use of outputs of health research, especially its use in clinical guidelines (CGs). This study aims to assess the proportion of National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) CGs citing National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment (NIHR HTA) studies and the impact of evidence from those studies on the included NICE CGs. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study assessing the proportion of NICE CGs from all NICE CGs issued between April 2001 and April 2012, which cited evidence from studies funded by the NIHR HTA (more)
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12.

Steps toward improving ethical evaluation in health technology assessment: a proposed framework.

Assasi, Nazila; Tarride, Jean-Eric; O'Reilly, Daria; Schwartz, Lisa
| Language(s): English
BACKGROUND: While evaluation of ethical aspects in health technology assessment (HTA) has gained much attention during the past years, the integration of ethics in HTA practice still presents many challenges. In response to the increasing demand for expansion of health technology assessment (HTA) methodology to include ethical issues more systematically, this article reports on a multi-stage study that aimed at construction of a framework for improving the integration of ethics in HTA. METHODS: The framework was developed through the following phases: 1) a systematic review and content analysis of guidance documents for ethics in HTA; 2) identification of factors influencing the integration of ethical considerations in HTA; 3) preparation of an action-oriented framework (more)
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13.

LOCAL HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT IN CANADA: CURRENT STATE AND NEXT STEPS.

Martin, Janet; Polisena, Julie; Dendukuri, Nandini; Rhainds, Marc; Sampietro-Colom, Laura
| Language(s): English
OBJECTIVES: Canada has witnessed expansion of the health technology assessment (HTA) infrastructure in the last 25 years. Local HTA entities at the hospital or regional level are emerging to assist decision makers in the acquisition, implementation, maintenance, and disinvestment of healthcare technologies. There is a need to facilitate collaboration and exchange of expertise and knowledge between these entities regarding the role of local HTA in Canada. METHODS: In November 2013, the pan-Canadian Collaborative hosted a symposium, Hospital/Regional HTA: Local Evidence-based Decisions for Health Care Sustainability, bringing together over 60 HTA producers, researchers, stakeholders, and manufacturers involved in local HTA across Canada. The objective was to showcase the (more)
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14.

Virtual reality as allocentric/egocentric technology for the assessment of cognitive decline in the elderly.

Morganti, Francesca; Riva, Giuseppe
| Language(s): English
Wayfinding ability has a high adaptive value, allowing humans to efficiently explore an environment in order to have a goal-oriented activity. This is done thanks to the capacity of individuals to actively acquire knowledge during interaction. Recently, different studies examined the wayfinding performances of older adults in Virtual Reality. While these studies underlined a greater difficulty with the wayfinding task in the elderly subjects, the effects of age on specific aspects of navigational tasks are less well specified. More, a recent study (Konishi & Bohbot, 2013) suggested that older people who use spatial navigational strategies (navigation is achieved by orientating oneself in relation to an allocentic landmark map) in their everyday lives may have increa (more)
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15.

Modeling technology innovation: how science, engineering, and industry methods can combine to generate beneficial socioeconomic impacts.

Stone, Vathsala I; Lane, Joseph P
| Language(s): English
BACKGROUND: Government-sponsored science, technology, and innovation (STI) programs support the socioeconomic aspects of public policies, in addition to expanding the knowledge base. For example, beneficial healthcare services and devices are expected to result from investments in research and development (R&D) programs, which assume a causal link to commercial innovation. Such programs are increasingly held accountable for evidence of impact-that is, innovative goods and services resulting from R&D activity. However, the absence of comprehensive models and metrics skews evidence gathering toward bibliometrics about research outputs (published discoveries), with less focus on transfer metrics about development outputs (patented prototypes) and almost none on econometric (more)
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