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1.

Individual or group antenatal education for childbirth/parenthood.

Gagnon, A J
| Idioma: Inglês
BACKGROUND: Structured antenatal education programs for childbirth and/or parenthood are commonly recommended for pregnant women and their partners by health care professionals in many parts of the world. Such programs are usually offered to groups but may be offered to individuals. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to assess the effects of this education on knowledge acquisition, anxiety, sense of control, pain, support, breastfeeding, infant care abilities, and psychological and social adjustment. SEARCH STRATEGY: The Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, and other databases were searched. The date of the last search was December, 1999. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials of any structured educationa (mais)
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2.

Mifepristone for induction of labour.

Neilson, J P
| Idioma: Inglês
BACKGROUND: The steroid hormone, progesterone, inhibits contractions of the uterus. Antiprogestins (including mifepristone) have been developed to antagonise the action of progesterone, and these have a recognised role in medical termination of early or mid-pregnancy. Animal studies have suggested that mifepristone may also have a role in inducing labour in late pregnancy. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of mifepristone for third trimester cervical ripening or induction of labour. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, and reference lists of relevant papers. SELECTION CRITERIA: Selection criteria included: (1) clinical trials comparing mifepristone used for third trimester cervical ripenin (mais)
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3.

Intravenous prostaglandin for induction of labour.

Luckas, M; Bricker, L
| Idioma: Inglês
BACKGROUND: Intravenous prostaglandin E2 and F2 alpha can be used to induce labour. The use of intravenous prostaglandins in this context has been limited by perceived unacceptable maternal side effect profiles. This is one of a series of reviews of methods of cervical ripening and labour induction using standardised methodology. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of intravenous prostaglandin for third trimester cervical ripening or induction of labour. SEARCH STRATEGY: The Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register, The Cochrane Controlled Trials Register and bibliographies of relevant papers. SELECTION CRITERIA: The criteria for inclusion included the following: (1) clinical trials comparing intravenous prostaglandin used for third trimester cervical ripening or labou (mais)
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4.

Oral beta-blockers for mild to moderate hypertension during pregnancy.

Magee, L A; Duley, L
| Idioma: Inglês
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a common complication of pregnancy. Antihypertensive drugs are widely used in the belief these will improve outcome for both the woman (such as decreasing the risk of stroke or eclampsia) and her baby (such as decreasing the risk of preterm birth and its complications). Beta-blockers are a popular choice of antihypertensive agent during pregnancy; other choices include methyldopa and calcium channel blockers. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review is to assess whether oral beta-blockers are overall better than placebo, or no beta-blocker, for women with mild-moderate hypertension during pregnancy, and to assess whether oral beta-blockers have any advantages over other antihypertensive agents for women with mild-moderate hypertension during pregnancy. Both mater (mais)
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5.

Amniotomy alone for induction of labour.

Bricker, L; Luckas, M
| Idioma: Inglês
BACKGROUND: Amniotomy (deliberate rupture of the membranes) is a simple procedure which can be used alone for induction of labour if the membranes are accessible, thus avoiding the need for pharmacological intervention. However, the time interval from amniotomy to established labour may not be acceptable to clinicians and women, and in a number of cases labour may not ensue. This is one of a series of reviews of methods of cervical ripening and labour induction using standardised methodology. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of amniotomy alone for third trimester labour induction in women with a live fetus. SEARCH STRATEGY: The Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register, the Cochrane Controlled trials register and bibliographies of relevant papers. SELECTION CRITERIA: (mais)
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6.

Vitamin E for Alzheimer's disease.

Tabet, N; Birks, J
| Idioma: Inglês
BACKGROUND: Vitamin E is a dietary compound that functions as an antioxidant scavenging toxic free radicals. Evidence that free radicals may contribute to the pathological processes in Alzheimer's disease has led to interest in the use of vitamin E in the treatment of this disorder. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of vitamin E treatment for people with Alzheimer's disease. SEARCH STRATEGY: The Cochrane Dementia Group Register of Clinical Trials was searched with the following terms: vitamin E, Alzheimer's disease, dementia, alpha-tocopherol, cognitive impairment, cognitive function and controlled trials. The latest search was carried out in July 2000. SELECTION CRITERIA: All unconfounded, double blind, randomized trials in which treatment with vitamin E at any dose was compared wit (mais)
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7.

Anxiolytics for smoking cessation.

Hughes, J R; Stead, L F; Lancaster, T
| Idioma: Inglês
BACKGROUND: There are two reasons to believe anxiolytics might help in smoking cessation. Anxiety may be a symptom of nicotine withdrawal. Second, smoking appears to be due, in part, to deficits in dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine, all of which are increased by anxiolytics and antidepressants. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review is to assess the effectiveness of anxiolytic drugs in aiding long term smoking cessation. The drugs include buspirone; diazepam; doxepin; meprobamate; ondansetron; and the beta-blockers metoprolol, oxprenolol and propanolol. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group trials register which includes trials indexed in Medline, Embase, SciSearch and PsycLit, and meetings abstracts. SELECTION CRITERIA: We considered randomized trials com (mais)
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8.

Cognitive rehabilitation for attention deficits following stroke.

Lincoln, N B; Majid, M J; Weyman, N
| Idioma: Inglês
BACKGROUND: Attention problems occur following stroke and are treated using computerised activities or paper and pencil tasks. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of cognitive rehabilitation for attention deficits following stroke. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register, Medline, EMBASE, CINHAL and CLIN PSYCH databases and reference lists from relevant articles. Date of most recent searches: December 1998 SELECTION CRITERIA: Controlled trials of attention training in stroke. Studies with mixed aetiology groups were excluded unless they included more than 75% of stroke patients or separate data were available for the stroke patients. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two reviewers extracted trial data and assessed trial quality. Reviewers contacted investig (mais)
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9.

Vasoactive drugs for acute stroke.

| Idioma: Inglês
BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether blood pressure should be managed after acute stroke and if so whether it is best to reduce or increase blood pressure. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to assess the effect of lowering or elevating blood pressure in people with acute stroke, and the effect of different vasoactive drugs on blood pressure in acute stroke. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Library (1999 Issue 1) using the CDSR and the CCTR databases, MEDLINE (from 1966), EMBASE (from 1980), BIDS ISI (Science Citation Index from 1981), and existing review articles. We contacted researchers in the field and pharmaceutical companies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials of interventions that would be expected, on pharmacological grounds, to alter blood pressure in patie (mais)
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10.

Psychoeducation for schizophrenia.

Pekkala, E; Merinder, L
| Idioma: Inglês
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia can be a severe and chronic illness characterised by lack of insight and poor compliance with treatment. Psychoeducational approaches have been developed to increase patients' awareness of their illness and its treatment. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of psychoeducational interventions compared to standard levels of knowledge provision. SEARCH STRATEGY: Electronic searches of CINAHL (1982-1999), The Cochrane Library CENTRAL (Issue 1, 1999), The Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Register (January 1999), EMbase (1980-1999), MEDLINE (1966-1999), PsycLit (1974-1999), and Sociofile (1974-1999) were undertaken. These were supplemented with reference searching and personal contact with authors of all included studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: All relevant randomised con (mais)
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11.

Thermotherapy for treating rheumatoid arthritis.

Welch, V; Brosseau, L; Shea, B; McGowan, J; Wells, G; Tugwell, P
| Idioma: Inglês
BACKGROUND: Heat and cold therapy are often used as adjuncts in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis by rehabilitation specialists. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of heat and cold on objective and subjective measures of disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched Medline, Embase, PEDro, Current Contents, Sports Discus and CINAHL up to June 2000. The Cochrane Field of Rehabilitation and related therapies and the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Review Group were also contacted for a search of their specialized registers. Handsearching was conducted on all retrieved articles for additional articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized or controlled clinical trials of ice or heat compared to placebo or active interventions in patients with rheumatoid art (mais)
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12.

Fluoride for treating postmenopausal osteoporosis.

Haguenauer, D; Welch, V; Shea, B; Tugwell, P; Wells, G
| Idioma: Inglês
OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of fluoride therapy on bone loss, vertebral and non-vertebral fractures and side effects in postmenopausal women. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched Medline, Current Contents and the Cochrane Controlled Trial Registry up to December 1998. SELECTION CRITERIA: Two independent reviewers selected RCTs which met predetermined inclusion criteria. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two reviewers independently extracted data using predetermined forms and assessed the methodological quality of the trials using a validated scale. For dichotomous outcomes, relative risks (RR) were calculated and for continuous outcomes, weighted mean differences (WMD) of percentage change from baseline were calculated. Where heterogeneity existed (determined by a chi-square test) a random (mais)
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13.

Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for knee osteoarthritis.

Osiri, M; Welch, V; Brosseau, L; Shea, B; McGowan, J; Tugwell, P; Wells, G
| Idioma: Inglês
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a disease that affects synovial joints, which mainly causes degeneration and destruction of hyaline cartilage. To date, no curative treatment for OA exists. The primary goals for OA therapy are to relieve pain, maintain or improve functional status, and minimize deformity. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a noninvasive modality in physiotherapy that is commonly used to control both acute and chronic pain arising from several conditions. A number of trials evaluating the efficacy of TENS in OA have been published. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of TENS in the treatment of knee OA. The primary outcomes of interest were those described by the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Clinical Trials (OMERACT) 3, which included pain (mais)
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14.

Recombinant versus urinary follicle stimulating hormone for ovarian stimulation in assisted reproduction cycles.

Daya, S; Gunby, J
| Idioma: Inglês
BACKGROUND: Until recently, the main source of exogenous follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) for therapeutic use in infertility had been the urine of postmenopausal women. New developments have resulted in the production of FSH in vitro by recombinant DNA technology. The extremely high purity and batch-to-batch consistency of recombinant FSH (rFSH) make it an attractive alternative to urinary FSH (uFSH). OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials comparing the effectiveness of rFSH with uFSH in ovarian stimulation protocols in in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment cycles. SEARCH STRATEGY: Search strategies included on-line searching of the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases from 1985 to 1999, hand searching o (mais)
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15.

Cranial irradiation for preventing brain metastases of small cell lung cancer in patients in complete remission.

| Idioma: Inglês
BACKGROUND: Prophylactic cranial irradiation halves the rate of brain metastases in patients with small cell lung cancer. Individual randomized trials conducted on patients in complete remission were unable to clarify whether this treatment improves survival. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to test whether prophylactic cranial irradiation prolongs survival of patients with small cell lung cancer in complete remission. SEARCH STRATEGY: Published and unpublished trials were eligible. Electronic databases, reference lists of trial publications, review articles and relevant books were used to identify potentially eligible trials. The search was also guided by discussions with investigators and experts, and the examination of meeting proceedings and of the Physician Data Query clinical trial r (mais)
Resultados  1-15 de 39.598