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Resultados 1 - 10 de 724

Census-derived migration data as a tool for informing malaria elimination policy.

Malar J; 15(1): 273, 2016 05 11.
Artículo Inglés | | ID: mdl-27169470


BACKGROUND: Numerous countries around the world are approaching malaria elimination. Until global eradication is achieved, countries that successfully eliminate the disease will contend with parasite reintroduction through international movement of infected people. Human-mediated parasite mobility is also important within countries near elimination, as it drives parasite flows that affect disease transmission on a subnational scale. METHODS: Movement patterns exhibited in census-based migration data are compared with patterns exhibited in a mobile phone data set from Haiti to quantify how well migration data predict short-term movement patterns. Because short-term movement data were unavailable for Mesoamerica, a logistic regression model fit to migration data from three countries in Mesoamerica is used to predict flows of infected people between subnational administrative units throughout the region. RESULTS: Population flows predicted using census-based migration data correlated strongly with mobile phone-derived movements when used as a measure of relative connectivity. Relative population flows are therefore predicted using census data across Mesoamerica, informing the areas that are likely exporters and importers of infected people. Relative population flows are used to identify community structure, useful for coordinating interventions and elimination efforts to minimize importation risk. Finally, the ability of census microdata inform future intervention planning is discussed in a country-specific setting using Costa Rica as an example. CONCLUSIONS: These results show long-term migration data can effectively predict the relative flows of infected people to direct malaria elimination policy, a particularly relevant result because migration data are generally easier to obtain than short-term movement data such as mobile phone records. Further, predicted relative flows highlight policy-relevant population dynamics, such as major exporters across the region, and Nicaragua and Costa Rica's strong connection by movement of infected people, suggesting close coordination of their elimination efforts. Country-specific applications are discussed as well, such as predicting areas at relatively high risk of importation, which could inform surveillance and treatment strategies.

A qualitative study of perceived needs and factors associated with the quality of care for common mental disorders in patients with chronic diseases: the perspective of primary care clinicians and patients.

BMC Fam Pract; 17(1): 134, 2016 Sep 13.
Artículo Inglés | | ID: mdl-27620166


BACKGROUND: The prevalence of comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders is high among patients with chronic diseases in primary care, and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates. The detection and treatment of common mental disorders in patients with chronic diseases can be challenging in the primary care setting. This study aims to explore the perceived needs, barriers and facilitators for the delivery of mental health care for patients with coexisting common mental disorders and chronic diseases in primary care from the clinician and patient perspectives. METHODS: In this qualitative descriptive study, we conducted semi-structured interviews with clinicians (family physician, nurse, psychologist, social worker; n = 18) and patients (n = 10) from three primary care clinics in Quebec, Canada. The themes explored included clinician factors (e.g., attitudes, perception of roles, collaboration, management of clinical priorities) and patient factors (e.g., needs, preferences, access to care, communication with health professionals) associated with the delivery of care. Qualitative data analysis was conducted based on an interactive cyclical process of data reduction, data display and conclusion drawing and verification. RESULTS: Clinician interviews highlighted a number of needs, barriers and enablers in the provision of patient services, which related to inter-professional collaboration, access to psychotherapy, polypharmacy as well as communication and coordination of services within the primary care clinic and the local network. Two specific facilitators associated with optimal mental health care were the broadening of nurses' functions in mental health care and the active integration of consulting psychiatrists. Patients corroborated the issues raised by the clinicians, particularly in the domains of whole-person care, service accessibility and care management. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this project will contribute to the development of quality improvement interventions to increase the uptake of organizational and clinical evidence-based practices for patients with chronic diseases and concurrent common mental disorders, in priority areas including collaborative care, access to psychotherapy and linkages with specialized mental health care.

Get Vaccinated! and Get Tested! Developing Primary and Secondary Cervical Cancer Prevention Videos for a Haitian Kreyòl-Speaking Audience.

J Health Commun; 21(5): 512-6, 2016 May.
Artículo Inglés | | ID: mdl-27050619


Although routine screening reduces cervical cancer rates between 60% and 90%, thousands of women worldwide are diagnosed with the disease on an annual basis because of inadequate screening. Haitian women in South Florida experience a disproportionate burden of cervical cancer, with disease rates 4 times higher than the average for women in Miami. An ongoing community-based participatory research initiative to assess and reduce this burden has revealed that a complex interplay of factors contributes to a lack of access to screening in this community, including socioeconomics, language barriers, and traditional understandings of health and disease. In an effort to address some of these barriers and encourage uptake of primary and secondary cervical cancer prevention strategies, 2 videos on cervical cancer prevention were created using a community-based participatory research framework. The video screenplays were created by a Haitian screenwriter using evidence-based medical information provided by academic researchers. The films feature Haitian actors speaking a Haitian Kreyòl dialogue with a storyline portraying friends and family discussing human papillomavirus disease and vaccination, Papanicolaou testing, and cervical cancer. Focus groups held with Haitian women in South Florida suggested that the films are engaging; feature relatable characters; and impact knowledge about human papillomavirus, cervical cancer development, and current prevention recommendations.

Dismantling the Taboo against Vaccines in Pregnancy.

Int J Mol Sci; 17(6)2016 Jun 07.
Artículo Inglés | | ID: mdl-27338346


Vaccinating pregnant women in order to protect them, the fetus, and the child has become universal in no way at all. Prejudice in health professionals add to fears of women and their families. Both these feelings are not supported by even the smallest scientific data. Harmlessness for the mother and the child has been observed for seasonal, pandemic, or quadrivalent influenza, mono, combined polysaccharide or conjugated meningococcal or pneumococcal, tetanus toxoid, acellular pertussis, human papillomavirus, cholera, hepatitis A, Japanese encephalitis, rabies, anthrax, smallpox, yellow fever, mumps, measles and rubella combined, typhoid fever, inactivated or attenuated polio vaccines, and Bacillus Calmétte Guerin vaccines. Instead, the beneficial effects of influenza vaccine for the mother and the child as well as of pertussis vaccine for the child have been demonstrated. Obstetrician-gynecologists, general practitioners, and midwives must incorporate vaccination into their standard clinical care. Strong communication strategies effective at reducing parental vaccine hesitancy and approval of regulatory agencies for use of vaccines during pregnancy are needed. It must be clear that the lack of pre-licensure studies in pregnant women and, consequently, the lack of a statement about the use of the vaccine in pregnant women does not preclude its use in pregnancy.

Need for certification of household water treatment products: examples from Haiti.

Trop Med Int Health; 20(4): 462-70, 2015 Apr.
Artículo Inglés | | ID: mdl-25441711


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate four household water treatment (HWT) products currently seeking approval for distribution in Haiti, through the application of a recently-developed national HWT product certification process. METHODS: Four chemical treatment products were evaluated against the certification process validation stage by verifying international product certifications confirming treatment efficacy and reviewing laboratory efficacy data against WHO HWT microbiological performance targets; and against the approval stage by confirming product composition, evaluating treated water chemical content against national and international drinking water quality guidelines and reviewing packaging for dosing ability and usage directions in Creole. RESULTS: None of the four evaluated products fulfilled validation or approval stage requirements. None was certified by an international agency as efficacious for drinking water treatment, and none had data demonstrating its ability to meet WHO HWT performance targets. All product sample compositions differed from labelled composition by >20%, and no packaging included complete usage directions in Creole. CONCLUSIONS: Product manufacturers provided information that was inapplicable, did not demonstrate product efficacy, and was insufficient to ensure safe product use. Capacity building is needed with country regulatory agencies to objectively evaluate HWT products. Products should be internationally assessed against WHO performance targets and also locally approved, considering language, culture and usability, to ensure effective HWT.

Malaria elimination in Haiti by the year 2020: an achievable goal?

Malar J; 14: 237, 2015 Jun 05.
Artículo Inglés | | ID: mdl-26043728


Haiti and the Dominican Republic, which share the island of Hispaniola, are the last locations in the Caribbean where malaria still persists. Malaria is an important public health concern in Haiti with 17,094 reported cases in 2014. Further, on January 12, 2010, a record earthquake devastated densely populated areas in Haiti including many healthcare and laboratory facilities. Weakened infrastructure provided fertile reservoirs for uncontrolled transmission of infectious pathogens. This situation results in unique challenges for malaria epidemiology and elimination efforts. To help Haiti achieve its malaria elimination goals by year 2020, the Laboratoire National de Santé Publique and Henry Ford Health System, in close collaboration with the Direction d'Épidémiologie, de Laboratoire et de Recherches and the Programme National de Contrôle de la Malaria, hosted a scientific meeting on "Elimination Strategies for Malaria in Haiti" on January 29-30, 2015 at the National Laboratory in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. The meeting brought together laboratory personnel, researchers, clinicians, academics, public health professionals, and other stakeholders to discuss main stakes and perspectives on malaria elimination. Several themes and recommendations emerged during discussions at this meeting. First, more information and research on malaria transmission in Haiti are needed including information from active surveillance of cases and vectors. Second, many healthcare personnel need additional training and critical resources on how to properly identify malaria cases so as to improve accurate and timely case reporting. Third, it is necessary to continue studies genotyping strains of Plasmodium falciparum in different sites with active transmission to evaluate for drug resistance and impacts on health. Fourth, elimination strategies outlined in this report will continue to incorporate use of primaquine in addition to chloroquine and active surveillance of cases. Elimination of malaria in Haiti will require collaborative multidisciplinary approaches, sound strategic planning, and strong ownership of strategies by the Haiti Ministère de la Santé Publique et de la Population.

Human resources for health in six healthcare arenas under stress: a qualitative study.

Hum Resour Health; 13: 14, 2015 Mar 29.
Artículo Inglés | | ID: mdl-25889864


BACKGROUND: Research on "human resources for health" (HRH) typically focuses on the public health subsector, despite the World Health Organization's inclusive definition to the contrary. This qualitative research examines the profile of HRH in six conflict-affected contexts where the public health subsector does not dominate healthcare service provision and HRH is a less coherent and cohesive entity: Afghanistan, the Central African Republic (CAR), the Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo), Haiti, the Occupied Palestinian Territories and Somalia. METHODS: The study uses a multiple-country qualitative research design including documentary analysis and key informant interviews undertaken between 2010 and 2012. The documentary analysis included peer-reviewed articles, books, unpublished research and evaluations and donor and non-government organisation reviews. A common thematic guide, informed by this analysis, was used to undertake key informant interviews. Informants thought able to provide some insight into the research questions were identified from ministry of health organograms, and from listings of donors and non-government organisations. Local informants outside the familiar structures were also contacted. In CAR, 74 were interviewed; in Somalia 25; . in Haiti, 45; in Afghanistan, 41; in DR Congo, 32; and in the Occupied Palestinian Territories, 30. In addition, peer review was sought on the initial country reports. RESULTS: The study discovered, in each healthcare arena investigated, a crowded HRH space with a wide range of public, private, formal and informal providers of varying levels of competence and a diverse richness of initiatives, shaped by the easy commodification of health and an unregulated market. The weak regulatory framework and capacity to regulate, combined with limited information regarding those not on the state payroll, allowed non-state providers to flourish, if not materially then at least numerically. CONCLUSION: When examining HRH, a reliance on information provided by the state health sector can only provide a partial and inadequate representation of reality. For policy-makers and planners in disrupted contexts to begin to appreciate fully current and potential HRH, there is a need to study the workforce using conceptual tools that reflect the situation on the ground, rather than idealised patterns generated by incomplete inventories and unrealistic standards.

Haïti and the health marketplace: the role of the private, informal market in filling the gaps left by the state.

BMC Health Serv Res; 15: 424, 2015 Sep 28.
Artículo Inglés | | ID: mdl-26416252


BACKGROUND: In most societies the health marketplace is pluralistic in character, with a mix of formal and informal providers. In high-income countries, state regulation of the market helps ensure quality and access and mitigate market failures. In the present study, using Haiti as a case study, we explore what happens to the functioning of the pluralistic health marketplace in severely disrupted environments where the informal sector is able to flourish. METHODS: The overall research design was qualitative. Research methods included an extensive documentary and policy analysis, based on peer-reviewed articles, books and "grey" literature--government policy and program reports, unpublished research and evaluations, reviews and reviews from key multilateral and bilateral donors, and non-government organisations, combined with field site visits and in-depth key informant interviews (N = 45). RESULTS: The findings show that state fragility has resulted in a privatised, commoditised and largely unregulated and informal health market. While different market segments can be identified, in reality the boundaries between international/domestic, public/private, for profit/not-for-profit, legal/illegal are hazy and shifting. DISCUSSION: The lack of state capacity to provide an enabling environment, establish, and enforce its regulatory framework has resulted in a highly segmented, heterogeneous and informal health market. The result is deplorable health indices which are far below regional averages and many other low-income countries. CONCLUSIONS: Working in fragile states with limited capacity to undertake the core function of securing the health of its population requires new and innovative ways of working. This needs longer time-frames, combining incremental top-down and bottom-up strategies which recognize and work with state and civil society, public and private actors, formal and informal institutions, and progressively facilitate changes in the different market functions of supply, demand, regulation and supporting functions.

Progress in reducing inequalities in reproductive, maternal, newborn,' and child health in Latin America and the Caribbean: an unfinished agenda.

Rev Panam Salud Publica; 38(1): 9-16, 2015 Jul.
Artículo Inglés | | ID: mdl-26506316


OBJECTIVE: To expand the "Countdown to 2015" analyses of health inequalities beyond the 75 countries being monitored worldwide to include all countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) that have adequate data available. METHODS: Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys were used to monitor progress in health intervention coverage and inequalities in 13 LAC countries, five of which are included in the Countdown (Bolivia, Brazil, Guatemala, Haiti, and Peru) and eight that are not (Belize, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Guyana, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Suriname). The outcomes included neonatal and under-5 year mortality rates, child stunting prevalence, and the composite coverage index-a weighted average of eight indicators of coverage in reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health. The slope index of inequality and concentration index were used to assess absolute and relative inequalities. RESULTS: The composite coverage index showed monotonic patterns over wealth quintiles, with lowest levels in the poorest quintile. Under-5 and neonatal mortality as well as stunting prevalence were highest among the poor. In most countries, intervention coverage increased, while under-5 mortality and stunting prevalence fell most rapidly among the poor, so that inequalities were reduced over time. However, Bolivia, Guatemala, Haiti, Nicaragua, and Peru still show marked inequalities. Brazil has practically eliminated inequalities in stunting. CONCLUSIONS: LAC countries presented substantial progress in terms of reducing inequalities in reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health interventions, child mortality, and nutrition. However, the poorest 20% of the population in most countries is still lagging behind, and renewed actions are needed to improve equity.

Developing an Electronic Medical Record for Interlinked Care Services in Haiti.

Stud Health Technol Inform; 216: 883, 2015.
Artículo Inglés | | ID: mdl-26262185


A large clinical care and research organization in Haiti required an electronic medical record system (EMR) to serve the needs of its 30 interlinked clinical programs. After assessing available open source software, the local team designed and implemented a modular proprietary EMR that is improving data quality and patient care. Despite the many benefits of existing open source medical record systems, clinical centers with complex workflow patterns--even those in resource-limited settings--should consider developing sustainable, local systems that fit their care model.
Resultados 1 - 10 de 724