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Haiti

Home > Pesquisa > "assistencia a saude" or "Delivery of Health Care" or "Soins a la santé" or "atencao a sa... (188)
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Resultados 1 - 10 de 188
1.

Census-derived migration data as a tool for informing malaria elimination policy.

Malar J; 15(1): 273, 2016 05 11.
Artigo Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27169470

Resumo

BACKGROUND: Numerous countries around the world are approaching malaria elimination. Until global eradication is achieved, countries that successfully eliminate the disease will contend with parasite reintroduction through international movement of infected people. Human-mediated parasite mobility is also important within countries near elimination, as it drives parasite flows that affect disease transmission on a subnational scale. METHODS: Movement patterns exhibited in census-based migration data are compared with patterns exhibited in a mobile phone data set from Haiti to quantify how well migration data predict short-term movement patterns. Because short-term movement data were unavailable for Mesoamerica, a logistic regression model fit to migration data from three countries in Mesoamerica is used to predict flows of infected people between subnational administrative units throughout the region. RESULTS: Population flows predicted using census-based migration data correlated strongly with mobile phone-derived movements when used as a measure of relative connectivity. Relative population flows are therefore predicted using census data across Mesoamerica, informing the areas that are likely exporters and importers of infected people. Relative population flows are used to identify community structure, useful for coordinating interventions and elimination efforts to minimize importation risk. Finally, the ability of census microdata inform future intervention planning is discussed in a country-specific setting using Costa Rica as an example. CONCLUSIONS: These results show long-term migration data can effectively predict the relative flows of infected people to direct malaria elimination policy, a particularly relevant result because migration data are generally easier to obtain than short-term movement data such as mobile phone records. Further, predicted relative flows highlight policy-relevant population dynamics, such as major exporters across the region, and Nicaragua and Costa Rica's strong connection by movement of infected people, suggesting close coordination of their elimination efforts. Country-specific applications are discussed as well, such as predicting areas at relatively high risk of importation, which could inform surveillance and treatment strategies.
2.

A qualitative study of perceived needs and factors associated with the quality of care for common mental disorders in patients with chronic diseases: the perspective of primary care clinicians and patients.

BMC Fam Pract; 17(1): 134, 2016 Sep 13.
Artigo Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27620166

Resumo

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders is high among patients with chronic diseases in primary care, and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates. The detection and treatment of common mental disorders in patients with chronic diseases can be challenging in the primary care setting. This study aims to explore the perceived needs, barriers and facilitators for the delivery of mental health care for patients with coexisting common mental disorders and chronic diseases in primary care from the clinician and patient perspectives. METHODS: In this qualitative descriptive study, we conducted semi-structured interviews with clinicians (family physician, nurse, psychologist, social worker; n = 18) and patients (n = 10) from three primary care clinics in Quebec, Canada. The themes explored included clinician factors (e.g., attitudes, perception of roles, collaboration, management of clinical priorities) and patient factors (e.g., needs, preferences, access to care, communication with health professionals) associated with the delivery of care. Qualitative data analysis was conducted based on an interactive cyclical process of data reduction, data display and conclusion drawing and verification. RESULTS: Clinician interviews highlighted a number of needs, barriers and enablers in the provision of patient services, which related to inter-professional collaboration, access to psychotherapy, polypharmacy as well as communication and coordination of services within the primary care clinic and the local network. Two specific facilitators associated with optimal mental health care were the broadening of nurses' functions in mental health care and the active integration of consulting psychiatrists. Patients corroborated the issues raised by the clinicians, particularly in the domains of whole-person care, service accessibility and care management. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this project will contribute to the development of quality improvement interventions to increase the uptake of organizational and clinical evidence-based practices for patients with chronic diseases and concurrent common mental disorders, in priority areas including collaborative care, access to psychotherapy and linkages with specialized mental health care.
3.

Get Vaccinated! and Get Tested! Developing Primary and Secondary Cervical Cancer Prevention Videos for a Haitian Kreyòl-Speaking Audience.

J Health Commun; 21(5): 512-6, 2016 May.
Artigo Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27050619

Resumo

Although routine screening reduces cervical cancer rates between 60% and 90%, thousands of women worldwide are diagnosed with the disease on an annual basis because of inadequate screening. Haitian women in South Florida experience a disproportionate burden of cervical cancer, with disease rates 4 times higher than the average for women in Miami. An ongoing community-based participatory research initiative to assess and reduce this burden has revealed that a complex interplay of factors contributes to a lack of access to screening in this community, including socioeconomics, language barriers, and traditional understandings of health and disease. In an effort to address some of these barriers and encourage uptake of primary and secondary cervical cancer prevention strategies, 2 videos on cervical cancer prevention were created using a community-based participatory research framework. The video screenplays were created by a Haitian screenwriter using evidence-based medical information provided by academic researchers. The films feature Haitian actors speaking a Haitian Kreyòl dialogue with a storyline portraying friends and family discussing human papillomavirus disease and vaccination, Papanicolaou testing, and cervical cancer. Focus groups held with Haitian women in South Florida suggested that the films are engaging; feature relatable characters; and impact knowledge about human papillomavirus, cervical cancer development, and current prevention recommendations.
4.

Dismantling the Taboo against Vaccines in Pregnancy.

Int J Mol Sci; 17(6)2016 Jun 07.
Artigo Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27338346

Resumo

Vaccinating pregnant women in order to protect them, the fetus, and the child has become universal in no way at all. Prejudice in health professionals add to fears of women and their families. Both these feelings are not supported by even the smallest scientific data. Harmlessness for the mother and the child has been observed for seasonal, pandemic, or quadrivalent influenza, mono, combined polysaccharide or conjugated meningococcal or pneumococcal, tetanus toxoid, acellular pertussis, human papillomavirus, cholera, hepatitis A, Japanese encephalitis, rabies, anthrax, smallpox, yellow fever, mumps, measles and rubella combined, typhoid fever, inactivated or attenuated polio vaccines, and Bacillus Calmétte Guerin vaccines. Instead, the beneficial effects of influenza vaccine for the mother and the child as well as of pertussis vaccine for the child have been demonstrated. Obstetrician-gynecologists, general practitioners, and midwives must incorporate vaccination into their standard clinical care. Strong communication strategies effective at reducing parental vaccine hesitancy and approval of regulatory agencies for use of vaccines during pregnancy are needed. It must be clear that the lack of pre-licensure studies in pregnant women and, consequently, the lack of a statement about the use of the vaccine in pregnant women does not preclude its use in pregnancy.
5.

Defunciones en niños a principios de los siglos XX y XXI en Boyacá-Colombia / Deaths in children during the early twentieth and twenty-first century in Boyacá, Colombia

Rev Salud Publica (Bogota); 14(supl.2): 15-31, jun. 2012. ilus, tab
Artigo Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-659939

Resumo

Objetivo Comparar y analizar las Tasas Brutas de Mortalidad (TBM), la Mortalidad en Menores (MN) de 5 años por mil Nacidos Vivos (NV) y la Mortalidad Infantil (MI) en el departamento de Boyacá-Colombia, a comienzos de los siglos XX y XXI. Métodos Estudio descriptivo comparativo con enfoque histórico epidemiológico. Se utilizaron dos fuentes de datos, para las defunciones: registros parroquiales de 1912-1927 y el Boletín epidemiológico de Boyacá 2007; para la población los censos DANE 1912-1918-1927 y 2005. Se almacenaron y analizaron en Mysql®. Se calcularon tasas brutas, específicas por edad e infantil, proporciones de mortalidad y mortalidad por causas. Resultados Entre 1912-1927 se registra una media de 7 958 muertes, en comparación con 5 813 en el siglo XXI; la TBM pasó de 150 muertes a 42 por 10 mil habitantes; la TMI se redujo considerablemente pasando de 231 a 17 por cada 1 000 NV; aunque se pueden comparar las tasas especificas en menores de 8 años con las de menores de 5, existe variabilidad en el rango y en la construcción de la TM especifica y la definida por OMS- UNICEF. Conclusiones Existe un impacto en la reducción de mortalidad, mayor en el siglo XXI, debido a las políticas nacionales e internacionales de control de enfermedades inmunoprevenibles y muerte materna. La pandemia de gripa de 1918-19 afectó considerablemente la mortalidad en todos los grupos de población; las causas violentas ocupan lugares importantes en la mortalidad infantil en el siglo XXI.
Objective Comparing and analysing crude death (CDR), child mortality (CMR) 5-year per thousand live births (LBR) and infant mortality rates (IMR) in the Boyacá department, Colombia, during the early 20th and 21st centuries. Methods A descriptive epidemiological comparative historical approach was adopted. Two data sources were used for deaths: parish registers 1912-1927 and the Boyacá Epidemiological Bulletin 2007 population census for 1912-1918-1927 and 2005 (Colombian Statistics Bureau - DANE); data was stored and analysed in Mysql. Crude rates, age-specific and child mortality ratios and mortality were calculated by cause. Results 7,958 deaths were recorded from 1912-1927 compared to 5,813 in the 21st century. CDR dropped from 150 to 42 deaths per 10,000 inhabitants; the IMR became significantly reduced from 231 to 17 for every 1,000 LB. Although specific rates for children under 8 years of age could be compared to children under 5, there was variability in the range and construction of the specific MR and that defined by WHO-UNICEF. Conclusions There was a higher reduction in mortality in the 21st century due to national and international policies for controlling preventable diseases and maternal death. The 1918-19 flu pandemic significantly affected mortality in all population groups; violent causes were prominent in infant mortality in the 21st century.
6.

Effects of the 2010 Haiti Earthquake on Women's Reproductive Health.

Stud Fam Plann; 47(1): 3-17, 2016 Mar.
Artigo Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27027990

Resumo

This article explores the effects of the 2010 Haiti earthquake on women's reproductive health, using geocoded data from the 2005 and 2012 Haiti Demographic and Health Surveys. We use geographic variation in the destructiveness of the earthquake to conduct a difference-in-difference analysis. Results indicate that heightened earthquake intensity reduced use of injectables-the most widely used modern contraceptive method in Haiti-and increased current pregnancy and current unwanted pregnancy. Analysis of impact pathways suggests that severe earthquake intensity significantly increased women's unmet need for family planning and reduced their access to condoms. The earthquake also affected other factors that influence reproductive health, including women's ability to negotiate condom use in their partnerships. Our findings highlight how disruptions to health care services following a natural disaster can have negative consequences for women's reproductive health.
7.

Surgical Non-governmental Organizations: Global Surgery's Unknown Nonprofit Sector.

World J Surg; 40(8): 1823-41, 2016 Aug.
Artigo Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27008646

Resumo

BACKGROUND: Charitable organizations may play a significant role in the delivery of surgical care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, in order to quantify their collective contribution, to account for the care they provide in national surgical plans, and to maximize coordination between organizations, a comprehensive database of these groups is required. We aimed to create such a database using web-available data. METHODS: We searched for organizations that meet the United Nations Rule of Law definition of non-governmental organizations and provide surgery in LMICs. We termed these surgical non-governmental organizations (s-NGOs). We screened multiple sources including a listing of disaster relief organizations, medical volunteerism databases, charity commissions, and the results of a literature search. We performed a secondary review of each eligible organization's website to verify inclusion criteria and extracted data. RESULTS: We found 403 s-NGOs providing surgery in all 139 LMICs, with most (61 %) incorporating surgery into a broader spectrum of health services. Over 80 % of s-NGOs had an office in the USA, the UK, Canada, India, or Australia, and they most commonly provided surgery in India (87 s-NGOs), Haiti (71), Kenya (60), and Ethiopia (55). The most common specialties provided were general surgery (184), obstetrics and gynecology (140), and plastic surgery (116). CONCLUSIONS: This new catalog includes the largest number of s-NGOs to date, but this is likely to be incomplete. This list will be made publicly available to promote collaboration between s-NGOs, national health systems, and global health policymakers.
8.

The use of proton pump inhibitors is positively associated with osteoporosis in postmenopausal women in Germany.

Climacteric; 19(5): 478-81, 2016 Oct.
Artigo Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27352629

Resumo

OBJECTIVES: To analyze the association between the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and osteoporosis in German postmenopausal women. METHODS: This study included 3092 women with osteoporosis and 3092 women without osteoporosis. Cases and controls were matched on the basis of age, health insurance, index year, and physician. The main outcome of the study was the risk of osteoporosis dependent on predefined risk factors. Gastrointestinal disorders potentially associated with osteoporosis were determined. The presence of PPIs including the duration of therapy was also assessed. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted with osteoporosis as a dependent variable. RESULTS: The mean age was 72.3 years; 5.6% of both osteoporosis patients and controls had private health insurance coverage. Gastrointestinal disorders occurred significantly more frequently in osteoporosis patients than in controls. The use of PPI drugs was also significantly more common in osteoporosis patients than in matched controls. Osteoporosis development was found to be associated with disorders of the esophagus (odds ratio (OR) 1.19, p = 0.013) and gastritis/duodenitis (OR 1.14; p = 0.045). Interestingly, the use of PPIs also led to an increase in the risk of developing osteoporosis (OR 1.62; p < 0.001). Finally, the odds of being diagnosed with osteoporosis increased with the duration of PPI therapy from 1.58 for 1 year of therapy or less to 1.72 for at least 5 years of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The use of PPIs was a risk factor for osteoporosis and this risk increased with therapy duration in German women. Esophagus disorders and gastritis/duodenitis also increased the risk of developing this chronic condition.
9.

Framework for Optimal Global Vaccine Stockpile Design for Vaccine-Preventable Diseases: Application to Measles and Cholera Vaccines as Contrasting Examples.

Risk Anal; 36(7): 1487-509, 2016 07.
Artigo Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25109229

Resumo

Managing the dynamics of vaccine supply and demand represents a significant challenge with very high stakes. Insufficient vaccine supplies can necessitate rationing, lead to preventable adverse health outcomes, delay the achievements of elimination or eradication goals, and/or pose reputation risks for public health authorities and/or manufacturers. This article explores the dynamics of global vaccine supply and demand to consider the opportunities to develop and maintain optimal global vaccine stockpiles for universal vaccines, characterized by large global demand (for which we use measles vaccines as an example), and nonuniversal (including new and niche) vaccines (for which we use oral cholera vaccine as an example). We contrast our approach with other vaccine stockpile optimization frameworks previously developed for the United States pediatric vaccine stockpile to address disruptions in supply and global emergency response vaccine stockpiles to provide on-demand vaccines for use in outbreaks. For measles vaccine, we explore the complexity that arises due to different formulations and presentations of vaccines, consideration of rubella, and the context of regional elimination goals. We conclude that global health policy leaders and stakeholders should procure and maintain appropriate global vaccine rotating stocks for measles and rubella vaccine now to support current regional elimination goals, and should probably also do so for other vaccines to help prevent and control endemic or epidemic diseases. This work suggests the need to better model global vaccine supplies to improve efficiency in the vaccine supply chain, ensure adequate supplies to support elimination and eradication initiatives, and support progress toward the goals of the Global Vaccine Action Plan.
10.

Quality orthopaedic care in sudden-onset disasters: suggestions from Médecins Sans Frontières-France.

Int Orthop; 40(3): 435-8, 2016 Mar.
Artigo Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26614107

Resumo

A huge change is needed in the conception and implementation of surgical care during sudden-onset disasters (SOD). The inadequate surgical response mounted by the majority of foreign medical teams (FMT) after Haiti's earthquake is a striking example of the need for a structured professional approach. Logistical capacity already exists to provide safe, timely, effective, efficient, equitable and ethical patient-centred care with minimum standards. However, knowledge, skills and training in the fields of general, orthopaedic and plastic surgery need further clarification. Surgical activity data and clinical examples from several Médecins Sans Frontières-France (MSF) projects are used here to describe the skill set and experience essential for surgeons working in SOD contexts.
Resultados 1 - 10 de 188