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Mosquito repellents for malaria prevention.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2: CD011595, 2018 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29405263


BACKGROUND: Malaria is an important cause of illness and death across endemic regions. Considerable success against malaria has been achieved within the past decade mainly through long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs). However, elimination of the disease is proving difficult as current control methods do not protect against mosquitoes biting outdoors and when people are active. Repellents may provide a personal protection solution during these times. OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of topical repellents, insecticide-treated clothing, and spatial repellents on malaria transmission. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases up to 26 June 2017: the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; the Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE; Embase; US AFPMB; CAB Abstracts; and LILACS. We also searched trial registration platforms and conference proceedings; and contacted organizations and companies for ongoing and unpublished trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-randomized controlled trials of topical repellents proven to repel mosquitoes; permethrin-treated clothing; and spatial repellents such as mosquito coils. We included trials that investigated the use of repellents with or without LLINs, referred to as insecticide-treated nets. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently reviewed trials for inclusion, extracted the data, and assessed the risk of bias. A third review author resolved any discrepancies. We analysed data by conducting meta-analysis and stratified by whether the trials had included LLINs. We combined results from cRCTs with individually RCTs by adjusting for clustering and presented results using forest plots. We used GRADE to assess the certainty of the evidence. MAIN RESULTS: Eight cRCTs and two RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Six trials investigated topical repellents, two trials investigated insecticide-treated clothing, and two trials investigated spatial repellents.Topical repellentsSix RCTS, five of them cluster-randomized, investigated topical repellents involving residents of malaria-endemic regions. Four trials used topical repellents in combination with nets, but two trials undertaken in displaced populations used topical repellents alone. It is unclear if topical repellents can prevent clinical malaria (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.4 to 1.07, very low certainty evidence) or malaria infection (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.64 to 1.12, low-certainty evidence) caused by P. falciparum. It is also unclear if there is any protection against clinical cases of P. vivax (RR 1.32, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.76, low-certainty evidence) or incidence of infections (RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.41, low-certainty evidence). Subgroup analysis of trials including insecticide-treated nets did not show a protective effect of topical repellents against malaria. Only two studies did not include insecticide-treated nets, and they measured different outcomes; one reported a protective effect against clinical cases of P. falciparum (RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.71); but the other study measured no protective effect against malaria infection incidence caused by either P. falciparum or P. vivax.Insecticide-treated clothingInsecticide-treated clothing were investigated in trials conducted in refugee camps in Pakistan and amongst military based in the Colombian Amazon. Neither study provided participants with insecticide-treated nets. In the absence of nets, treated clothing may reduce the incidence of clinical malaria caused by P. falciparum by approximately 50% (RR 0.49, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.83, low-certainty evidence) and P. vivax (RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.40 to 1.01, low-certainty evidence).Spatial repellentsTwo cluster-randomized RCTs investigated mosquito coils for malaria prevention. We do not know the effect of spatial repellents on malaria prevention (RR 0.24, 95% CI 0.03 to 1.72, very low certainty evidence). There was large heterogeneity between studies and one study had high risk of bias. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is insufficient evidence to conclude topical or spatial repellents can prevent malaria. There is a need for better designed trials to generate higher certainty of evidence before well-informed recommendations can be made. Adherence to daily compliance remains a major limitation. Insecticide-treated clothing may reduce risk of malaria infection in the absence of insecticide-treated nets; further studies on insecticide-treated clothing in the general population should be done to broaden the applicability of the results.

Human migration and the spread of malaria parasites to the New World.

Sci Rep; 8(1): 1993, 2018 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29386521


We examined the mitogenomes of a large global collection of human malaria parasites to explore how and when Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax entered the Americas. We found evidence of a significant contribution of African and South Asian lineages to present-day New World malaria parasites with additional P. vivax lineages appearing to originate from Melanesia that were putatively carried by the Australasian peoples who contributed genes to Native Americans. Importantly, mitochondrial lineages of the P. vivax-like species P. simium are shared by platyrrhine monkeys and humans in the Atlantic Forest ecosystem, but not across the Amazon, which most likely resulted from one or a few recent human-to-monkey transfers. While enslaved Africans were likely the main carriers of P. falciparum mitochondrial lineages into the Americas after the conquest, additional parasites carried by Australasian peoples in pre-Columbian times may have contributed to the extensive diversity of extant local populations of P. vivax.

CYP2D6 activity and the risk of recurrence of Plasmodium vivax malaria in the Brazilian Amazon: a prospective cohort study.

Malar J; 17(1): 57, 2018 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29390987


BACKGROUND: CYP2D6 pathway mediates the activation of primaquine into active metabolite(s) in hepatocytes. CYP2D6 is highly polymorphic, encoding CYP2D6 isoforms with normal, reduced, null or increased activity. It is hypothesized that Plasmodium vivax malaria patients with defective CYP2D6 function would be at increased risk for primaquine failure to prevent recurrence. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of CYP2D6 polymorphisms and inferred CYP2D6 phenotypes with malaria recurrence in patients from the Western Brazilian Amazon, following chloroquine/primaquine combined therapy. METHODS: The prospective cohort consisted of P. vivax malaria patients who were followed for 6 months after completion of the chloroquine/primaquine therapy. Recurrence was defined as one or more malaria episodes, 28-180 days after the initial episode. Genotyping for nine CYP2D6 SNPs and copy number variation was performed using TaqMan assays in a Fast 7500 Real-Time System. CYP2D6 star alleles (haplotypes), diplotypes and CYP2D6 phenotypes were inferred, and the activity score system was used to define the functionality of the CYP2D6 diplotypes. CYP2D6 activity scores (AS) were dichotomized at ≤ 1 (gPM, gIM and gNM-S phenotypes) and ≥ 1.5 (gNM-F and gUM phenotypes). RESULTS: Genotyping was successfully performed in 190 patients (44 with recurrence and 146 without recurrences). Recurrence incidence was higher in individuals presenting reduced activity CYP2D6 phenotypes (adjusted relative risk = 1.89, 95% CI 1.01-3.70; p = 0.049). Attributable risk and population attributable fraction were 11.5 and 9.9%, respectively. The time elapsed from the first P. vivax malaria episode until the recurrence did not differ between patients with AS of ≤ 1 versus ≥ 1.5 (p = 0.917). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that CYP2D6 polymorphisms are associated with increased risk of recurrence of vivax malaria, following chloroquine-primaquine combined therapy. This association is interpreted as the result of reduced conversion of primaquine into its active metabolites in patients with reduced CYP2D6 enzymatic activity.

Tools for surveillance of anti-malarial drug resistance: an assessment of the current landscape.

Malar J; 17(1): 75, 2018 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29422048


To limit the spread and impact of anti-malarial drug resistance and react accordingly, surveillance systems able to detect and track in real-time its emergence and spread need to be strengthened or in some places established. Currently, surveillance of anti-malarial drug resistance is done by any of three approaches: (1) in vivo studies to assess the efficacy of drugs in patients; (2) in vitro/ex vivo studies to evaluate parasite susceptibility to the drugs; and/or (3) molecular assays to detect validated gene mutations and/or gene copy number changes that are associated with drug resistance. These methods are complementary, as they evaluate different aspects of resistance; however, standardization of methods, especially for in vitro/ex vivo and molecular techniques, is lacking. The World Health Organization has developed a standard protocol for evaluating the efficacy of anti-malarial drugs, which is used by National Malaria Control Programmes to conduct their therapeutic efficacy studies. Regional networks, such as the East African Network for Monitoring Antimalarial Treatment and the Amazon Network for the Surveillance of Antimalarial Drug Resistance, have been set up to strengthen regional capacities for monitoring anti-malarial drug resistance. The Worldwide Antimalarial Resistance Network has been established to collate and provide global spatial and temporal trends information on the efficacy of anti-malarial drugs and resistance. While exchange of information across endemic countries is essential for monitoring anti-malarial resistance, sustainable funding for the surveillance and networking activities remains challenging. The technology landscape for molecular assays is progressing quite rapidly, and easy-to-use and affordable new techniques are becoming available. They also offer the advantage of high throughput analysis from a simple blood spots obtained from a finger prick. New technologies combined with the strengthening of national reference laboratories in malaria-endemic countries through standardized protocols and training plus the availability of a proficiency testing programme, would contribute to the improvement and sustainability of anti-malarial resistance surveillance networks worldwide.

Promising approach to reducing Malaria transmission by ivermectin: Sporontocidal effect against Plasmodium vivax in the South American vectors Anopheles aquasalis and Anopheles darlingi.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis; 12(2): e0006221, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29444080


BACKGROUND: The mosquito resistance to the insecticides threatens malaria control efforts, potentially becoming a major public health issue. Alternative methods like ivermectin (IVM) administration to humans has been suggested as a possible vector control to reduce Plasmodium transmission. Anopheles aquasalis and Anopheles darlingi are competent vectors for Plasmodium vivax, and they have been responsible for various malaria outbreaks in the coast of Brazil and the Amazon Region of South America. METHODS: To determine the IVM susceptibility against P. vivax in An. aquasalis and An. darlingi, ivermectin were mixed in P. vivax infected blood: (1) Powdered IVM at four concentrations (0, 5, 10, 20 or 40 ng/mL). (2) Plasma (0 hours, 4 hours, 1 day, 5, 10 and 14 days) was collected from healthy volunteers after to administer a single oral dose of IVM (200 µg/kg) (3) Mosquitoes infected with P. vivax and after 4 days was provided with IVM plasma collected 4 hours post-treatment (4) P. vivax-infected patients were treated with various combinations of IVM, chloroquine, and primaquine and plasma or whole blood was collected at 4 hours. Seven days after the infective blood meal, mosquitoes were dissected to evaluate oocyst presence. Additionally, the ex vivo effects of IVM against asexual blood-stage P. vivax was evaluated. RESULTS: IVM significantly reduced the prevalence of An. aquasalis that developed oocysts in 10 to 40 ng/mL pIVM concentrations and plasma 4 hours, 1 day and 5 days. In An. darlingi to 4 hours and 1 day. The An. aquasalis mortality was expressively increased in pIVM (40ng/mL) and plasma 4 hours, 1, 5 10 and 14 days post-intake drug and in An. darlingi only to 4 hours and 1 day. The double fed meal with mIVM by the mosquitoes has a considerable impact on the proportion of infected mosquitoes for 7 days post-feeding. The oocyst infection prevalence and intensity were notably reduced when mosquitoes ingested blood from P. vivax patients that ingested IVM+CQ, PQ+CQ and IVM+PQ+CQ. P. vivax asexual development was considerably inhibited by mIVM at four-fold dilutions. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, whole blood spiked with IVM reduced the infection rate of P. vivax in An. aquasalis and An. darlingi, and increased the mortality of mosquitoes. Plasma from healthy volunteers after IVM administration affect asexual P. vivax development. These findings support that ivermectin may be used to decrease P. vivax transmission.

Clinical and immunological profiles of anaemia in children and adolescents with Plasmodium vivax malaria in the Pará state, Brazilian Amazon.

Acta Trop; 181: 122-131, 2018 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29408596


Children and adolescents are at great risk for developing iron deficiency anaemia worldwide. In the tropical areas, malaria and intestinal parasites may also play an important role in anaemia pathogenesis. This study aimed at evaluating clinical and immunological aspects of anaemia in children and adolescents with Plasmodium vivax malaria, in the Pará State, Brazil. A longitudinal study was performed in two Reference Centers for malaria diagnosis in the Brazilian Amazon in children and adolescents with malaria (n = 81), as compared to a control group (n = 40). Patients had blood drawn three times [before treatment (D0), after treatment (D7) and at the first cure control (D30)] and hemogram, autoantibody analysis (anticardiolipin, antibodies against normal RBC membrane components) and cytokine studies (TNF and IL-10) were performed. Stool samples were collected for a parasitological examination. Malaria patients had a 2.7-fold greater chance of anaemia than the control group. At D0, 66.1% of the patients had mild anaemia, 30.5% had moderate and 3.5% had severe anaemia. Positivity to intestinal helminths and/or protozoa at stool examinations had no influence on anaemia. Patients had significantly lower levels of plasmatic TNF than control individuals at D0. Low TNF levels were more prevalent among patients with moderate/severe anaemia than in those with mild anaemia and among anaemic patients than in anaemic controls. TNF levels were positively correlated with the haemoglobin rates and negatively correlated with the interval time elapsed between the onset of symptoms and diagnosis. Both plasma TNF levels and haemoglobin rates increased during the follow-up period. The IL-10 levels were lower in patients than in the controls at day 0 and decreased thereafter up to the end of treatment. Only the anti-anticardiolipin autoantibodies were associated with moderate/severe anaemia and, possibly by reacting with the parasite glycosylphosphatidylinositol (a powerful stimulator of TNF production), may have indirectly contributed to decrease the TNF levels, which could be involved in the malarial vivax anaemia of these children and adolescents. More studies addressing this issue are necessary to confirm these findings and to add more information on the multifactorial pathogenesis of the malarial anaemia.

In silico epitope mapping and experimental evaluation of the Merozoite Adhesive Erythrocytic Binding Protein (MAEBL) as a malaria vaccine candidate.

Malar J; 17(1): 20, 2018 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29316918


BACKGROUND: Technical limitations for culturing the human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax have impaired the discovery of vaccine candidates, challenging the malaria eradication agenda. The immunogenicity of the M2 domain of the Merozoite Adhesive Erythrocytic Binding Protein (MAEBL) antigen cloned from the Plasmodium yoelii murine parasite, has been previously demonstrated. RESULTS: Detailed epitope mapping of MAEBL through immunoinformatics identified several MHCI, MHCII and B cell epitopes throughout the peptide, with several of these lying in the M2 domain and being conserved between P. vivax, P. yoelii and Plasmodium falciparum, hinting that the M2-MAEBL is pan-reactive. This hypothesis was tested through functional assays, showing that P. yoelii M2-MAEBL antisera are able to recognize and inhibit erythrocyte invasion from both P. falciparum and P. vivax parasites isolated from Thai patients, in ex vivo assays. Moreover, the sequence of the M2-MAEBL is shown to be highly conserved between P. vivax isolates from the Amazon and Thailand, indicating that the MAEBL antigen may constitute a vaccine candidate outwitting strain-specific immunity. CONCLUSIONS: The MAEBL antigen is promising candidate towards the development of a malaria vaccine.

Correlation of APRIL with production of inflammatory cytokines during acute malaria in the Brazilian Amazon.

Immun Inflamm Dis; 2018 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29314720


INTRODUCTION: A proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) and B cell activation factor (BAFF) are known to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including BAFF in malaria. The aim of this study was to investigate whether APRIL and BAFF plasma concentrations could be part of inflammatory responses associated with P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria in patients from the Brazilian Amazon. METHODS: Blood samples were obtained from P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria patients (n = 52) resident in Porto Velho before and 15 days after the beginning of treatment and from uninfected individuals (n = 12). We investigated APRIL and BAFF circulating levels and their association with parasitaemia, WBC counts, and cytokine/chemokine plasma levels. The expression levels of transmembrane activator and calcium-modulating cyclophilin ligand interactor (TACI) on PBMC from a subset of 5 P. vivax-infected patients were analyzed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: APRIL plasma levels were transiently increased during acute P. vivax and P. falciparum infections whereas BAFF levels were only increased during acute P. falciparum malaria. Although P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria patients have similar cytokine profiles during infection, in P. vivax acute phase malaria, APRIL but not BAFF levels correlated positively with IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-13 levels. We did not find any association between P. vivax parasitaemia and APRIL levels, while an inverse correlation was found between P. falciparum parasitaemia and APRIL levels. The percentage of TACI positive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were increased in the acute phase P. vivax malaria. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that the APRIL and BAFF inductions reflect different host strategies for controlling infection with each malaria species.

Isolation, Derivative Synthesis, and Structure-Activity Relationships of Antiparasitic Bromopyrrole Alkaloids from the Marine Sponge Tedania brasiliensis.

J Nat Prod; 2018 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29297684


The isolation and identification of a series of new pseudoceratidine (1) derivatives from the sponge Tedania brasiliensis enabled the evaluation of their antiparasitic activity against Plasmodium falciparum, Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agents of malaria, cutaneous leishmaniasis, visceral leishmaniasis, and Chagas disease, respectively. The new 3-debromopseudoceratidine (4), 20-debromopseudoceratidine (5), 4-bromopseudoceratidine (6), 19-bromopseudoceratidine (7), and 4,19-dibromopseudoceratidine (8) are reported. New tedamides A-D (9-12), with an unprecedented 4-bromo-4-methoxy-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxamide moiety, are also described. Compounds 4 and 5, 6 and 7, 9 and 10, and 11 and 12 have been isolated as pairs of inseparable structural isomers differing in their sites of bromination or oxidation. Tedamides 9+10 and 11+12 were obtained as optically active pairs, indicating an enzymatic formation rather than an artifactual origin. N -Acetylpseudoceratidine (2) and N -formylpseudoceratidine (3) were obtained by derivatization of pseudoceratidine (1). The antiparasitic activity of pseudoceratidine (1) led us to synthesize 23 derivatives (16, 17, 20, 21, 23, 25, 27-29, 31, 33, 35, 38, 39, 42, 43, 46, 47, 50, and 51) with variations in the polyamine chain and aromatic moiety in sufficient amounts for biological evaluation in antiparasitic assays. The measured antimalarial activity of pseudoceratidine (1) and derivatives 4, 5, 16, 23, 25, 31, and 50 provided an initial SAR evaluation of these compounds as potential leads for antiparasitics against Leishmania amastigotes and against P. falciparum. The results obtained indicate that pseudoceratidine represents a promising scaffold for the development of new antimalarial drugs.

Enteroparasite and vivax malaria co-infection on the Brazil-French Guiana border: Epidemiological, haematological and immunological aspects.

PLoS One; 13(1): e0189958, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29293589


Malaria-enteroparasitic co-infections are known for their endemicity. Although they are prevalent, little is known about their epidemiology and effect on the immune response. This study evaluated the effect of enteroparasite co-infections with malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax in a border area between Brazil and French Guiana. The cross sectional study took place in Oiapoque, a municipality of Amapá, on the Amazon border. Malaria was diagnosed using thick blood smears, haemoglobin dosage by an automated method and coproparasitology by the Hoffman and Faust methods. The anti-PvMSP-119 IgG antibodies in the plasma were evaluated using ELISA and Th1 (IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2), and Th2 (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10) cytokine counts were performed by flow cytometry. The participants were grouped into those that were monoinfected with vivax malaria (M), vivax malaria-enteroparasite co-infected (CI), monoinfected with enteroparasite (E) and endemic controls (EC), who were negative for both diseases. 441 individuals were included and grouped according to their infection status: [M 6.9% (30/441)], [Cl 26.5% (117/441)], [E 32.4% (143/441)] and [EC 34.2% (151/441)]. Males prevailed among the (M) 77% (23/30) and (CI) 60% (70/117) groups. There was a difference in haemoglobin levels among the different groups under study for [EC-E], [EC-Cl], [E-M] and [Cl-M], with (p < 0.01). Anaemia was expressed as a percentage between individuals [CI-EC (p < 0.05)]. In terms of parasitaemia, there were differences for the groups [CI-M (p < 0.05)]. Anti-PvMSP-119 antibodies were detected in 51.2% (226/441) of the population. The level of cytokines evaluation revealed a large variation in TNF-α and IL-10 concentrations in the co-infected group. In this study we did not observe any influence of coinfection on the acquisition of IgG antibodies against PvMSP119, as well as on the profile of the cytokines that characterize the Th1 and Th2 patterns. However, co-infection increased TNF-α and IL-10 levels.

Preventing malaria in the Peruvian Amazon: a qualitative study in Iquitos, Peru.

Malar J; 17(1): 31, 2018 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29338719


BACKGROUND: In Peru, despite decades of concerted control efforts, malaria remains a significant public health burden. Peru has recently exhibited a dramatic rise in malaria incidence, impeding South America's progress towards malaria elimination. The Amazon basin, in particular the Loreto region of Peru, has been identified as a target for the implementation of intensified control strategies, aiming for elimination. No research has addressed why vector control strategies in Loreto have had limited impact in the past, despite vector control elsewhere being highly effective in reducing malaria transmission. This study employed qualitative methods to explore factors limiting the success of vector control strategies in the region. METHODS: Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted among adults attending a primary care centre in Iquitos, Peru, together with 3 interviews with key informants (health care professionals). The interviews focussed on how local knowledge, together with social and cultural attitudes, determined the use of vector control methods. RESULTS: Five themes emerged. (a) Participants believed malaria to be embedded within their culture, and commonly blamed this for a lack of regard for prevention. (b) They perceived a shift in mosquito biting times to early evening, rendering night-time use of bed nets less effective. (c) Poor preventive practices were compounded by a consensus that malaria prevention was the government's responsibility, and that this reduced motivation for personal prevention. (d) Participants confused the purpose of space-spraying. (e) Participants' responses also exposed persisting misconceptions, mainly concerning the cause of malaria and best practices for its prevention. CONCLUSION: To eliminate malaria from the Americas, region-specific strategies need to be developed that take into account the local social and cultural contexts. In Loreto, further research is needed to explore the potential shift in biting behaviour of Anopheles darlingi, and how this interacts with the population's social behaviours and current use of preventive measures. Attitudes concerning personal responsibility for malaria prevention and long-standing misconceptions as to the cause of malaria and best preventive practices also need to be addressed.

Are respiratory complications of Plasmodium vivax malaria an underestimated problem?

Malar J; 16(1): 495, 2017 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29273053


BACKGROUND: Respiratory complications are uncommon, but often life-threatening features of Plasmodium vivax malaria. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and lethality associated with such complications among P. vivax malaria patients in a tertiary hospital in the Western Brazilian Amazon, and to identify variables associated with severe respiratory complications, intensive care need and death. Medical records from 2009 to 2016 were reviewed aiming to identify all patients diagnosed with P. vivax malaria and respiratory complications. Prevalence, lethality and risk factors associated with WHO defined respiratory complications, intensive care need and death were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 587 vivax malaria patients were hospitalized during the study period. Thirty (5.1%) developed respiratory complications. Thirteen (43.3%) developed severe respiratory complications, intensive care was required for 12 (40%) patients and 5 (16.6%) died. On admission, anaemia and thrombocytopaenia were common findings, whereas fever was unusual. Patients presented different classes of parasitaemia and six were aparasitaemic on admission. Time to respiratory complications occurred after anti-malarials administration in 18 (60%) patients and progressed very rapidly. Seventeen patients (56.7%) had comorbidities and/or concomitant conditions, which were significantly associated to higher odds of developing severe respiratory complications, need for intensive care and death (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Respiratory complications were shown to be associated with significant mortality in this population. Patients with comorbidities and/or concomitant conditions require special attention to avoid this potential life-threatening complication.

Immunoproteomics of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cell membrane fractions.

Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz; 112(12): 850-856, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29211247


BACKGROUND: The surface of infected red blood cells (iRBCs) has been widely investigated because of the molecular complexity and pathogenesis mechanisms involved. Asymptomatic individuals are important in the field because they can perpetuate transmission as natural reservoirs and present a challenge for diagnosing malaria because of their low levels of circulating parasites. Recent studies of iRBC antibody recognition have shown that responses are quantitatively similar in symptomatic and asymptomatic infections, but no studies have characterised the plasmodial proteins targeted by this response. OBJECTIVES: Our main objective was to identify Plasmodium falciparum proteins associated with iRBC ghosts recognised by antibodies in the sera of symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals in the Brazilian Amazon. METHODS: We collected symptomatic and asymptomatic sera from patients residing in the Brazilian Amazon and P. falciparum iRBC ghosts to identify the proteins involved in natural antibody recognition by 2D-electrophoresis, western blotting, and high- resolution mass spectrometry. FINDINGS: 2D gel-based immunoproteome analysis using symptomatic and asymptomatic sera identified 11 proteins with at least one unique peptide, such as chaperones HSP70-1 and HSP70-x, which likely are components of the secretion machinery/PTEX translocon. PfEMP1 is involved in antigenic variation in symptomatic infections and we found putative membrane proteins whose functions are unknown. MAIN FINDINGS: Our results suggest a potential role of old and new proteins, such as antigenic variation proteins, iRBC remodelling, and membrane proteins, with no assigned functions related to the immune response against P. falciparum, providing insights into the pathogenesis, erythrocyte remodelling, and secretion machinery important for alternative diagnosis and/or malaria therapy.

Mitochondrial genome of Plasmodium vivax/simium detected in an endemic region for malaria in the Atlantic Forest of Espírito Santo state, Brazil: do mosquitoes, simians and humans harbour the same parasite?

Malar J; 16(1): 437, 2017 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29084553


BACKGROUND: The transmission of malaria in the extra-Amazonian regions of Brazil, although interrupted in the 1960s, has persisted to the present time in some areas of dense Atlantic Forest, with reports of cases characterized by particular transmission cycles and clinical presentations. Bromeliad-malaria, as it is named, is particularly frequent in the state of Espírito Santo, with Plasmodium vivax being the parasite commonly recognized as the aetiologic agent of human infections. With regard to the spatial and temporal distances between cases reported in this region, the transmission cycle does not fit the traditional malaria cycle. The existence of a zoonosis, with infected simians participating in the epidemiology, is therefore hypothesized. In the present study, transmission of bromeliad-malaria in Espírito Santo is investigated, based on the complete mitochondrial genome of DNA extracted from isolates of Plasmodium species, which had infected humans, a simian from the genus Allouata, and Anopheles mosquitoes. Plasmodium vivax/simium was identified in the samples by both nested PCR and real-time PCR. After amplification, the mitochondrial genome was completely sequenced and compared with a haplotype network which included all sequences of P. vivax/simium mitochondrial genomes sampled from humans and simians from all regions in Brazil. RESULTS: The haplotype network indicates that humans and simians from the Atlantic Forest become infected by the same haplotype, but some isolates from humans are not identical to the simian isolate. In addition, the plasmodial DNA extracted from mosquitoes revealed sequences different from those obtained from simians, but similar to two isolates from humans. CONCLUSIONS: These findings strengthen support for the hypothesis that in the Atlantic Forest, and especially in the state with the highest frequency of bromeliad-malaria in Brazil, parasites with similar molecular backgrounds are shared by humans and simians. The recognized identity between P. vivax and P. simium at the species level, the sharing of haplotypes, and the participation of the same vector in transmitting the infection to both host species indicate interspecies transference of the parasites. However, the intensity, frequency and direction of this transfer remain to be clarified.

Reassessment of asymptomatic carriers of Plasmodium spp. in an endemic area with a very low incidence of malaria in extra-Amazonian Brazil.

Malar J; 16(1): 452, 2017 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29121963


BACKGROUND: Regions with residual transmission are potential obstacles to the elimination of malaria. It is, therefore, essential to understand the factors associated with the maintenance of endemic malaria in these areas. The objective was to investigate whether the status of asymptomatic carriers of Plasmodium spp. DNA is maintained in the long term in an extra-Amazonian region of Brazil with low incidence, residual malaria transmission. METHODS: Asymptomatic carriers of Plasmodium DNA detected in a survey carried out between 2001 and 2004 were reassessed between 2010 and 2011 using questionnaires, PCR and thick and thin blood smear tests three times at 3-month intervals. RESULTS: Of the 48 carriers detected between 2001 and 2004, 37 were located. Of these, only two had positive PCR results and, as in the first survey, Plasmodium malariae DNA was detected. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that untreated dwellers from this extra-Amazonian region, who initially harbour malaria parasites, may become negative without ever developing apparent symptoms of the disease. Although the possibility of re-infection cannot be ruled out, the finding of two individuals harbouring P. malariae, both in the first and in the second survey, may be compatible with a long-term carrier state for this parasite. Since most clinical cases of malaria in the region are a consequence of infection by Plasmodium vivax, the epidemiological impact of such long-term carriage would be limited.

Efficacy of Artemether-Lumefantrine for Uncomplicated Malaria in Cruzeiro do Sul, Brazil, 2016.

Am J Trop Med Hyg; 2017 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29141762


We evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) fixed-dose combination to treat uncomplicated malaria in Cruzeiro do Sul, Acre State, in the Amazon region of Brazil. Between December 2015 and May 2016, we enrolled 79 patients, 5-79 years old with fever or history of fever in the previous 48 hours and monoinfection confirmed by microscopy. Attempts were made to provide direct observation or phone reminders for all six doses of AL, and patients were followed-up for 28 days. AL was well tolerated, with no adverse events causing treatment interruption. All but one of the 74 patients who completed the 28-day follow-up had an adequate clinical and parasitologic response = 98.6% (95% CI: 93.2-100%). We could not amplify the one isolate of the case with recurrent infection to differentiate between recrudescence and reinfection. Five (6.3%) patients demonstrated persistent asexual parasitemia on Day 3, but none met definition for early treatment failure. We found no mutations in selected gene domains, known to be associated with artemisinin resistance in isolates from Day 0. These results strongly support the continued use of AL as a first-line therapy for uncomplicated malaria in Acre. Routine monitoring of in vivo drug efficacy coupled with molecular surveillance of drug resistance markers remains critical.

Ivermectin susceptibility, sporontocidal effect, and inhibition of time to re-feed in the Amazonian malaria vector Anopheles darlingi.

Malar J; 16(1): 474, 2017 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29162101


BACKGROUND: Outdoor malaria transmission hinders malaria elimination efforts in the Amazon region and novel vector control tools are needed. Ivermectin mass drug administration (MDA) to humans kills wild Anopheles, targets outdoor-feeding vectors, and can suppress malaria parasite transmission. Laboratory investigations were performed to determine ivermectin susceptibility, sporontocidal effect and inhibition of time to re-feed for the primary Amazonian malaria vector, Anopheles darlingi. METHODS: To assess ivermectin susceptibility, various concentrations of ivermectin were mixed in human blood and fed to An. darlingi. Mosquito survival was monitored daily for 7 days and a non-linear mixed effects model with Probit analysis was used to calculate lethal concentrations of ivermectin that killed 50% (LC ), 25% (LC ) and 5% (LC ) of mosquitoes. To examine ivermectin sporonticidal effect, Plasmodium vivax blood samples were collected from malaria patients and offered to mosquitoes without or with ivermectin at the LC , LC or LC . To assess ivermectin inhibition of mosquito time to re-feed, concentrations of ivermectin predicted to occur after a single oral dose of 200 µg/kg ivermectin were fed to An. darlingi. Every day for 12 days thereafter, individual mosquitoes were given the opportunity to re-feed on a volunteer. Any mosquitoes that re-blood fed or died were removed from the study. RESULTS: Ivermectin significantly reduced An. darlingi survivorship: 7-day-LC = 43.2 ng/ml [37.5, 48.6], -LC = 27.8 ng/ml [20.4, 32.9] and -LC = 14.8 ng/ml [7.9, 20.2]. Ivermectin compound was sporontocidal to P. vivax in An. darlingi at the LC and LC concentrations reducing prevalence by 22.6 and 17.1%, respectively, but not at the LC . Oocyst intensity was not altered at any concentration. Ivermectin significantly delayed time to re-feed at the 4-h (48.7 ng/ml) and 12-h (26.9 ng/ml) concentrations but not 36-h (10.6 ng/ml) or 60-h (6.3 ng/ml). CONCLUSIONS: Ivermectin is lethal to An. darlingi, modestly inhibits sporogony of P. vivax, and delays time to re-feed at concentrations found in humans up to 12 h post drug ingestion. The LC value suggests that a higher than standard dose (400-µg/kg) is necessary to target An. darlingi. These results suggest that ivermectin MDA has potential in the Amazon region to aid malaria elimination efforts.

High prevalence of very-low Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax parasitaemia carriers in the Peruvian Amazon: insights into local and occupational mobility-related transmission.

Malar J; 16(1): 415, 2017 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29037202


BACKGROUND: The incidence of malaria due both to Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in the Peruvian Amazon has risen in the past 5 years. This study tested the hypothesis that the maintenance and emergence of malaria in hypoendemic regions such as Amazonia is determined by submicroscopic and asymptomatic Plasmodium parasitaemia carriers. The present study aimed to precisely quantify the rate of very-low parasitaemia carriers in two sites of the Peruvian Amazon in relation to transmission patterns of P. vivax and P. falciparum in this area. METHODS: This study was carried out within the Amazonian-ICEMR longitudinal cohort. Blood samples were collected for light microscopy diagnosis and packed red blood cell (PRBC) samples were analysed by qPCR. Plasma samples were tested for total IgG reactivity against recombinant PvMSP-10 and PfMSP-10 antigens by ELISA. Occupation and age 10 years and greater were considered surrogates of occupation-related mobility. Risk factors for P. falciparum and P. vivax infections detected by PRBC-qPCR were assessed by multilevel logistic regression models. RESULTS: Among 450 subjects, the prevalence of P. vivax by PRBC-PCR (25.1%) was sixfold higher than that determined by microscopy (3.6%). The prevalence of P. falciparum infection was 4.9% by PRBC-PCR and 0.2% by microscopy. More than 40% of infections had parasitaemia under 5 parasites/µL. Multivariate analysis for infections detected by PRBC-PCR showed that participants with recent settlement in the study area (AOR 2.1; 95% CI 1.03:4.2), age ≥ 30 years (AOR 3.3; 95% CI 1.6:6.9) and seropositivity to P. vivax (AOR 1.8; 95% CI 1.0:3.2) had significantly higher likelihood of P. vivax infection, while the odds of P. falciparum infection was higher for participants between 10 and 29 years (AOR 10.7; 95% CI 1.3:91.1) and with a previous P. falciparum infection (AOR 10.4; 95% CI 1.5:71.1). CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the contrasting transmission patterns of P. vivax and P. falciparum in the Peruvian Amazon, with stable local transmission for P. vivax and the source of P. falciparum to the study villages dominated by very low parasitaemia carriers, age 10 years and older, who had travelled away from home for work and brought P. falciparum infection with them.

Loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification for asymptomatic malaria detection in challenging field settings: Technical performance and pilot implementation in the Peruvian Amazon.

PLoS One; 12(10): e0185742, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28982155


BACKGROUND: Loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification (LAMP) methodology offers an opportunity for point-of-care (POC) molecular detection of asymptomatic malaria infections. However, there is still little evidence on the feasibility of implementing this technique for population screenings in isolated field settings. METHODS: Overall, we recruited 1167 individuals from terrestrial ('road') and hydric ('riverine') communities of the Peruvian Amazon for a cross-sectional survey to detect asymptomatic malaria infections. The technical performance of LAMP was evaluated in a subgroup of 503 samples, using real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) as reference standard. The operational feasibility of introducing LAMP testing in the mobile screening campaigns was assessed based on field-suitability parameters, along with a pilot POC-LAMP assay in a riverine community without laboratory infrastructure. RESULTS: LAMP had a sensitivity of 91.8% (87.7-94.9) and specificity of 91.9% (87.8-95.0), and the overall accuracy was significantly better among samples collected during road screenings than riverine communities (p≤0.004). LAMP-based diagnostic strategy was successfully implemented within the field-team logistics and the POC-LAMP pilot in the riverine community allowed for a reduction in the turnaround time for case management, from 12-24 hours to less than 5 hours. Specimens with haemolytic appearance were regularly observed in riverine screenings and could help explaining the hindered performance/interpretation of the LAMP reaction in these communities. CONCLUSIONS: LAMP-based molecular malaria diagnosis can be deployed outside of reference laboratories, providing similar performance as qPCR. However, scale-up in remote field settings such as riverine communities needs to consider a number of logistical challenges (e.g. environmental conditions, labour-intensiveness in large population screenings) that can influence its optimal implementation.

Socioeconomic and demographic characterization of an endemic malaria region in Brazil by multiple correspondence analysis.

Malar J; 16(1): 397, 2017 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28969634


BACKGROUND: In the process of geographical retraction of malaria, some important endemicity pockets remain. Here, we report results from a study developed to obtain detailed community data from an important malaria hotspot in Latin America (Alto Juruá, Acre, Brazil), to investigate the association of malaria with socioeconomic, demographic and living conditions. METHODS: A household survey was conducted in 40 localities (n = 520) of Mâncio Lima and Rodrigues Alves municipalities, Acre state. Information on previous malaria, schooling, age, gender, income, occupation, household structure, habits and behaviors related to malaria exposure was collected. Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) was applied to characterize similarities between households and identify gradients. The association of these gradients with malaria was assessed using regression. RESULTS: The first three dimensions of MCA accounted for almost 50% of the variability between households. The first dimension defined an urban/rurality gradient, where urbanization was associated with the presence of roads, basic services as garbage collection, water treatment, power grid energy, and less contact with the forest. There is a significant association between this axis and the probability of malaria at the household level, OR = 1.92 (1.23-3.02). The second dimension described a gradient from rural settlements in agricultural areas to those in forested areas. Access via dirt road or river, access to electricity power-grid services and aquaculture were important variables. Malaria was at lower risk at the forested area, OR = 0.55 (1.23-1.12). The third axis detected intraurban differences and did not correlate with malaria. CONCLUSIONS: Living conditions in the study area are strongly geographically structured. Although malaria is found throughout all the landscapes, household traits can explain part of the variation found in the odds of having malaria. It is expected these results stimulate further discussions on modelling approaches targeting a more systemic and multi-level view of malaria dynamics.
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