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Extractivism of palm tree fruits: A risky activity because of snakebites in the state of Acre, Western Brazilian Amazon.

Rev Soc Bras Med Trop; 52: e20180195, 2019 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30892398


INTRODUCTION: We present here the risk from snakebites because of palm extractivism in western Amazonia. METHODS: The data were extracted from a cross-sectional sample study, from January 2016 to April 2018, at the Juruá Regional Hospital of Cruzeiro do Sul (Acre). RESULTS: There were 14 Bothrops incidents involving males, most of them occurring during the harvesting of "açaí" (Euterpe precatoria). CONCLUSIONS: During the harvesting of "açaí," there is the risk of the presence of B. atrox on the ground near the palm tree, and of B. bilineatus at the top of the palm tree.

High prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in pregnant women attended at Primary Health Care services in Amazon, Brazil.

Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo; 61: e6, 2019 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30785560


Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection is often silent and can lead to long-term reproductive complications in women. In this study, we determined the prevalence of CT infection and possible associations between the presence of the infection and clinical-epidemiological variables in pregnant women attended at the Basic Health Units of the Coari city, Amazonas, Brazil. From July 2016 to March 2017, 164 pregnant women undergoing prenatal care were recruited. One hundred of these women were tested for CT infection using two types of samples: cervico-vaginal and urine. The diagnosis was confirmed by PCR with primers specific for the omp1 gene of CT chromosomal DNA. Of the 100 pregnant women, 18 (18%) had CT infection, 8 (8%) of which were positive in both samples, 7 (7%) only in the urine sample and 3 (3%) only in cervical-vaginal sample. There was moderate agreement (Kappa=0.55) and no statistically significant difference between sample types (p = 0.400). The mean age of infected women was 21.1 years (SD = 4.6). Of the clinical-epidemiological variables analyzed, "more than 2 partners in the last 12 months" (p = 0.022) and gynecological complaint of "pain after intercourse" (p = 0.020) were associated with CT infection. This study showed a high prevalence (18%) of CT infection among pregnant women in Coari / Amazonas. Urine sampales were as good as cervical-vaginal ones for the screening of CT infection during the prenatal period.

Mercury Exposure and Poor Nutritional Status Reduce Response to Six Expanded Program on Immunization Vaccines in Children: An Observational Cohort Study of Communities Affected by Gold Mining in the Peruvian Amazon.

Int J Environ Res Public Health; 16(4)2019 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30795575


Poor nutritional status combined with mercury exposure can generate adverse child health outcomes. Diet is a mediator of mercury exposure and evidence suggests that nutritional status modifies aspects of mercury toxicity. However, health impacts beyond the nervous system are poorly understood. This study evaluates antibody responses to six vaccines from the expanded program on immunization (EPI), including hepatitis B, type B, measles, pertussis, tetanus, and diphtheria in children with variable hair mercury and malnutrition indicators. An observational cohort study ( = 98) was conducted in native and non-native communities in Madre de Dios, Peru, a region with elevated mercury exposure from artisanal and small-scale gold mining. Adaptive immune responses in young (3⁻48 months) and older children (4⁻8 year olds) were evaluated by vaccine type (live attenuated, protein subunits, toxoids) to account for differences in response by antigen, and measured by total IgG concentration and antibody (IgG) concentrations of each EPI vaccine. Mercury was measured from hair samples and malnutrition determined using anthropometry and hemoglobin levels in blood. Generalized linear mixed models were used to evaluate associations with each antibody type. Changes in child antibodies and protection levels were associated with malnutrition indicators, mercury exposure, and their interaction. Malnutrition was associated with decreased measles and diphtheria-specific IgG. A one-unit decrease in hemoglobin was associated with a 0.17 IU/mL (95% CI: 0.04⁻0.30) decline in measles-specific IgG in younger children and 2.56 (95% CI: 1.01⁻6.25) higher odds of being unprotected against diphtheria in older children. Associations between mercury exposure and immune responses were also dependent on child age. In younger children, one-unit increase in log child hair mercury content was associated with 0.68 IU/mL (95% CI: 0.18⁻1.17) higher pertussis and 0.79 IU/mL (95% CI: 0.18⁻1.70) higher diphtheria-specific IgG levels. In older children, child hair mercury content exceeding 1.2 µg/g was associated with 73.7 higher odds (95% CI: 2.7⁻1984.3) of being a non-responder against measles and hair mercury content exceeding 2.0 µg/g with 0.32 IU/mL (95% CI: 0.10⁻0.69) lower measles-specific antibodies. Log hair mercury significantly interacted with weight-for-height z-score, indicating a multiplicative effect of higher mercury and lower nutrition on measles response. Specifically, among older children with poor nutrition (WHZ = -1), log measles antibody is reduced from 1.40 to 0.43 for low (<1.2 µg/g) vs. high mercury exposure, whereas for children with good nutritional status (WHZ = 1), log measles antibody is minimally changed for low vs. high mercury exposure (0.72 vs. 0.81, respectively). Child immune response to EPI vaccines may be attenuated in regions with elevated mercury exposure risk and exacerbated by concurrent malnutrition.

Community ecology of parasites in four species of Corydoras (Callichthyidae), ornamental fish endemic to the eastern Amazon (Brazil).

An Acad Bras Cienc; 91(1): e20170926, 2019 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30785499


This study compared the parasites community in Corydoras ephippifer, Corydoras melanistius, Corydoras amapaensis and Corydoras spilurus from tributaries from the Amapari River in State of Amapá (Brazil). A total of 151 fish of these four ornamental species were examined, of which 66.2% were parasitized by one or more species, and a total of 732 parasites were collected. Corydoras ephippifer (91.2%) and C. spilurus (98.8%) were the most parasitized hosts, while C. amapaensis (9.6%) was the least parasitized. A high similarity (≅ 75%) of parasite communities was found in the host species. Hosts were parasitized by Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus, Camallanus sp. and metacercariae of digeneans. The parasites had an aggregated dispersion pattern, but in C. ephippifer a random dispersion of P. (S.) inopinatus was found. The parasite community was characterized by a low species richness (1-4 parasites per host), low diversity and low evenness, and consisted mainly of endoparasites with high prevalence and low abundance. An important component in the determination of the helminth parasite community composition was the dominance of species that use these fish species as secondary intermediate or paratenic hosts. This was the first study on the parasite community for these four hosts. A checklist of parasite species in wild populations of Corydoras spp. from different localities was also reported here.

A new species of Rhinoleucophenga (Diptera: Drosophilidae), parasite of the scale insect pest Praelongorthezia praelonga (Sternorrhyncha: Ortheziidae) from the Brazilian Amazon.

Zootaxa; 4551(5): 583-592, 2019 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30790796


A new species of Rhinoleucophenga Hendel from the Brazilian Amazon, R. hesperides sp. nov., was described based on morphology of male and female specimens. The larvae are predators of the eggs and adult females of ensign scales Praelongorthezia praelonga (Douglas) (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Ortheziidae). Female P. praelonga also serve as a source of honeydew for adult R. hesperides sp. nov. In addition, the puparium of this species was described.

A name for the nurse-frog (Allobates, Aromobatidae) of Floresta Nacional de Carajás, Eastern Brazilian Amazonia.

Zootaxa; 4550(1): 71-100, 2019 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30790877


We describe a new species of nurse-frog (Aromobatidae, Allobates) from Floresta Nacional de Carajás, southeastern Brazilian Amazonia. Allobates carajas sp. nov. is distinguished from similar congeneric species by the combination of the following characters: body-size range (snout-to-vent length 16.5-19.1 mm), dorsal color pattern with a dark brown hourglass-shaped mark, by the absence of a pale dorsolateral stripe and presence of a pale ventrolateral stripe, absence of a pale paracloacal mark, by overall bright yellow ventral colors of live male and female specimens, and by the posterior labium of tadpoles, with a single row of pyramidal papillae medially. The advertisement call of the new species is highly variable, with four possible temporal arrangements of notes (continuous emission of notes separated by regular silent intervals, continuous emission of notes separated by irregular silent intervals, emission of discrete note trills, and sporadic emission of single notes). Duration of notes range between 0.020-0.060 s, and the dominant frequency of notes range from 4.75 to 5.38 kHz. The new species is currently known only from forested habitats within Floresta Nacional de Carajás.

Environmental impacts of the life cycle of alluvial gold mining in the Peruvian Amazon rainforest.

Sci Total Environ; 662: 940-951, 2019 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30795481


Alluvial gold mining activities in the Peruvian Amazon rainforest are responsible for mercury emissions and deforestation. To understand related environmental impacts, specifically toxicity and climate change, this study uses Life Cycle Assessment methodology. Four predominant extraction systems were selected and modelled and three scenarios that reflect currently available gold recovery systems were modelled: amalgamation, amalgamation with mercury recovery through retort system and gravimetric tables. The USEtox and IPCC life cycle impact assessment methods were used to assess the environmental impacts in term of human toxicity, freshwater ecotoxicity and climate change. Results show that for all systems, human toxicity values are governed by mercury emissions in gold recovery activities (ca. 80%). However, the use of retort significantly lowers these impacts (ca. 90%). Machines and diesel use for ore extraction and freighting activities drive freshwater ecotoxicity. Moreover, deforestation has a major contribution on the environmental impacts related to climate change. However, these impacts are dependent on the type of extraction system. Although human toxicity, freshwater ecotoxicity and climate change are frequently studied separately, a direct relationship between them has been identified in this system. Finally, beyond the environmental burdens related to alluvial gold mining, there are impacts affecting the social, cultural, and economic dimensions that will need to be analyzed to ensure a comprehensive understanding of the system.

Climatic variables associated with dengue incidence in a city of the Western Brazilian Amazon region.

Rev Soc Bras Med Trop; 52: e20180429, 2019 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30810657


INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to examine the impact of climate variability on the incidence of dengue fever in the city of Rio Branco, Brazil. METHODS: The association between the monthly incidence of dengue fever and climate variables such as precipitation, temperature, humidity, and the Acre River level was evaluated, using generalized autoregressive moving average models with negative binomial distribution. Multiple no-lag, 1-month lag, and 2-month lag models were tested. RESULTS: The no-lag model showed that the incidence of dengue fever was associated with the monthly averages of the Acre River level (incidence rate ratio [IRR]: 1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.17), compensated temperature (IRR: 1.54; 95% CI: 1.22-1.95), and maximum temperature (IRR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.58-0.81). The 1-month lag model showed that the incidence of dengue fever was predicted by the monthly averages of total precipitation (IRR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.06-1.39), minimum temperature (IRR: 1.54; 95% CI: 1.24-1.91), compensated relative humidity (IRR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.82-0.99), and maximum temperature (IRR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.59-0.97). The 2-month lag model showed that the incidence of dengue fever was predicted by the number of days with precipitation (IRR: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.00-1.06) and maximum temperature (IRR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.05-1.44). CONCLUSIONS: Considering the impact of global climate change on the region, these findings can help to predict trends in dengue fever incidence.

The role of TLR9 on Leishmania amazonensis infection and its influence on intranasal LaAg vaccine efficacy.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis; 13(2): e0007146, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30802247


Leishmania (L.) amazonensis is one of the etiological agents of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Brazil. Currently, there is no vaccine approved for human use against leishmaniasis, although several vaccine preparations are in experimental stages. One of them is Leishvacin, or LaAg, a first-generation vaccine composed of total L. amazonensis antigens that has consistently shown an increase of mouse resistance against CL when administered intranasally (i.n.). Since Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is highly expressed in the nasal mucosa and LaAg is composed of TLR9-binding DNA CpG motifs, in this study we proposed to investigate the role of TLR9 in both L. amazonensis infection and in LaAg vaccine efficacy in C57BL/6 (WT) mice and TLR9-/- mice. First, we evaluated, the infection of macrophages by L. amazonensis in vitro, showing no significant difference between macrophages from WT and TLR9-/- mice in terms of both infection percentage and total number of intracellular amastigotes, as well as NO production. In addition, neutrophils from WT and TLR9-/- mice had similar capacity to produce neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in response to L. amazonensis. L. amazonensis did not activate dendritic cells from WT and TLR9-/- mice, analysed by MHCII and CD86 expression. However, in vivo, TLR9-/- mice were slightly more susceptible to L. amazonensis infection than WT mice, presenting a larger lesion and an increased parasite load at the peak of infection and in the chronic phase. The increased TLR9-/- mice susceptibility was accompanied by an increased IgG and IgG1 production; a decrease of IFN-γ in infected tissue, but not IL-4 and IL-10; and a decreased number of IFN-γ producing CD8+ T cells, but not CD4+ T cells in the lesion-draining lymph nodes. Also, TLR9-/- mice could not control parasite growth following i.n. LaAg vaccination unlike the WT mice. This protection failure was associated with a reduction of the hypersensitivity response induced by immunization. The TLR9-/- vaccinated mice failed to respond to antigen stimulation and to produce IFN-γ by lymph node cells. Together, these results suggest that TLR9 contributes to C57BL/6 mouse resistance against L. amazonensis, and that the TLR9-binding LaAg comprising CpG motifs may be important for intranasal vaccine efficacy against CL.

Plan de Acción de Salud Integral con Pertinencia Cultural para la población de las comunidades nativas de Nazareth, Wachapea, Pakun y Umukay, distrito de Imaza, provincia de Bagua, Amazonas, 2019-2021 / Comprehensive Health Action Plan with Cultural Relevance for the population of the native communities of Nazareth, Wachapea, Pakun and Umukay, district of Imaza, Bagua province, Amazonas, 2019-2021

Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 20190100. 27 p p. tab, graf.
Monografia em Espanhol | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-970139


Contribuir a mejorar la salud de los pobladores de las comunidades de Nazareth, Pakun, Wachapea y Umukay ubicadas en el distrito de Imaza de la provincia de Bagua, del departamento de Amazonas, que fueron expuestos al derrame de petróleo en el mes de enero del 2006 en la quebrada Inayo.
Biblioteca responsável: PE18.1

Strain by the train: Patterns of toad fatalities on a Brazilian Amazonian railroad.

Sci Total Environ; 660: 493-500, 2019 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30640116


Transportation infrastructures are directly responsible for killing billions of animals worldwide. Although the understanding about road impacts have recently increased, the impact of railroads on wildlife has received less attention. The current knowledge concerning the impacts of railroads focuses mainly on large mammals although amphibians might be affected. Our study aims to unravel temporal and spatial patterns of Rhinella toad fatalities on a Brazilian Amazonian railroad, to comprehend how toads are killed and to estimate the magnitude of toad fatalities. Data collection was carried out on foot on an 871-km stretch of the Estrada de Ferro Carajás from 2013 to 2017. We identified different potential causes for fatalities: being run over, desiccated or with barotrauma signs. We estimated a surprisingly high carcass persistence probability of about 38 days. After correcting for the bias from carcass detection and removal, we estimated that approximately 10,000 toads are killed per year (≈ 11 fatalities/km/year). A GLM model showed that toads were more likely to be killed in the dry to wet transition. We identified critical zones of fatalities and prioritized them according to their intensity. The highly critical segments encompass >10% of all fatalities although they cover only 1.5% of the railroad. Our study is the first one to address carcass detection and persistence on railroads and to unravel patterns of fatalities of an amphibian species in a tropical climate. A better understanding of the patterns of animal fatality on railroads is of fundamental importance to manage and mitigate this impact.

Heavy Metal Enrichment Factors in Fluvial Sediments of an Amazonian Basin Impacted by Gold Mining.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol; 102(2): 210-217, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30659300


Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) has been performed in the southern Ecuadorian Amazon since the colonial period. However, its effects on fluvial systems have been poorly investigated. Thus, in order to calculate the normalized enrichment factors (NEF) of several heavy metals in fluvial sediments of the Zamora River basin (Ecuadorian Amazon), we analyzed bottom sediments along ASGM-affected and unaffected river sections. The results indicated that sediments of the Congüime River have NEF between 2.2 and 2.3 for Cu (moderate contamination) and higher than 3 for Mn, Zn, Pb, and Hg (severe contamination). Similarly, a severe contamination is also observed in the lower Nangaritza River, due to sediments of this sector have NEF > 3 for Zn, Pb, and Hg. Bottom sediments from the Nambija and Zamora rivers showed a severe contamination with Hg (NEF > 3), suggesting the existence of ASGM activities in the upper Zamora River basin.

Effects of exposure to fine particulate matter in elderly hospitalizations due to respiratory diseases in the South of the Brazilian Amazon.

Braz J Med Biol Res; 52(2): e8130, 2019 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30698228


Exposure to air pollution is an important cause of hospital admissions due to respiratory diseases. Nevertheless, few studies use pollutant concentration data estimated by mathematical models. A time-series ecological study was developed, using data from hospitalizations due to respiratory diseases in people over 60 years of age, residents of Cuiabá, Brazil, during 2012, obtained from the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The independent variables were the concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and carbon monoxide (CO) estimated by mathematical modeling, minimum temperature, and relative humidity (obtained from the Brazilian Meteorological Agency), and the number of forest fires. The generalized linear regression model of Poisson was used, with lags of 0 to 7 days. The coefficients obtained were transformed into relative risk of hospitalization, with respective 95% confidence intervals; alpha=5% was adopted. In that year, 591 hospitalizations were evaluated, with a daily average of 1.61 (SD=1.49), the PM2.5 average concentration was 15.7 µg/m3, and the CO average concentration was 144.2 ppb. Significant associations between exposure to these contaminants and hospitalizations in lags 3 and 4 in 2012 were observed. There was a hospitalization risk increase of 31.8%, with an increase of 3.5 µg/m3 of PM2.5 concentrations and an increase of 188 in the total number of hospitalizations, with an expense of more than ≈US$ 96,000 for the Brazilian Public Health System. This study provided information on the cost of air pollution to the health system and the feasibility of using a mathematical model to estimate environmental concentration of air pollutants.

Effects of a shipwreck on the zooplankton community in a port region of the Amazon.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int; 26(6): 5738-5750, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30612347


The port regions of the Amazon are subject to environmental impacts high shipping traffic. In October 2015, a cargo ship containing 5000 oxen sank in the Port of Vila do Conde, northern Brazil, releasing large amounts of organic matter and diesel oil into the aquatic environment. We evaluated the consequences of this shipwreck on the zooplankton community. Sampling was carried out using a phytoplankton net (64 µm) at two locations close to the port. We calculated the frequency of occurrence, relative abundance, and trophic state index and performed a canonical redundancy analysis of zooplankton in this area. Total density values ranged from 371 to 8600 organisms/m , with minimum values being recorded during the period of the shipwreck and maximum values after the shipwreck. The areas categorized as super eutrophic had the lowest density values. The most abundant species/groups were nauplii and copepodites of the orders Cyclopoida and Calanoida. Of the environmental variables, only biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, and total dissolved solids were selected by the redundancy canonical analysis. The environmental conditions of the region and the ongoing environmental impacts might substantially influence the structure of the zooplankton community. The predominance of these organisms, in addition to the high densities of nauplii and copepodites, was likely related to the large amounts of nutrients generated by the shipwreck.

Circulating Leptospira species identified in cattle of the Brazilian Amazon.

Acta Trop; 191: 212-216, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639452


The present study aimed to detect the most prevalent serogroups and circulating Leptospira species in cows from Brazilian Amazon. Samples of blood serum, urine and kidney of 208 animals were collected at a municipal slaughterhouse in the Baixo Tocantins region of Pará State, Northern Brazil. The tests used were microscopic agglutination test (MAT), bacteriological isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The frequency of MAT-reactive cows was 46.6% (97/208) with titers ranging from 100 to 3200, being Sejroe serogroup the most prevalent. There was no Leptospira isolation, but the DNA of bacterium was detected in 5.8% (12/208) of the kidney and in 14.9% (31/208) of the urine samples. DNA sequencing was performed directly from PCR products of 30 samples (3 kidneys and 27 urines), with identification of four different species: L. borgpetersenii with 56.7% (17/30), followed by L. kirschneri with 13.3% (4/30), L. interrogans with 6.7% (2/30), L. santarosai with 3.3% (1/30), and 20.0% (6/30) of samples were identified only at the genus level. These results reveal a diversity and peculiarity for bovine leptospirosis in the Amazon region, mainly due to the low frequency of L. santarosai and more surprising, the presence of L. kirschneri, differently of what is observed in other regions of Brazil.

First occurrence of Anacroneuria singularis Righi-Cavallaro Lecci, 2010 (Plecoptera: Perlidae) in Rondônia, western Amazonia, Brazil.

Zootaxa; 4544(3): 446-450, 2019 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30647252


Anacroneuria singularis is newly reported from the northern Brazilian state of Rondônia in the western Amazonia. Records for this species are also reported for the central-western and southeastern regions of Brazil. Knowledge of the distribution of a species is fundamental for allowing better conservation planning, especially the identification of nymphs which can be used to evaluate water quality of Amazonian streams.

In vivo antileishmanial efficacy of a naphthoquinone derivate incorporated into a Pluronic F127-based polymeric micelle system against Leishmania amazonensis infection.

Biomed Pharmacother; 109: 779-787, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30551531


New therapeutic strategies against leishmaniasis are desirable, since the treatment against disease presents problems, such as the toxicity, high cost and/or parasite resistance. As consequence, new antileishmanial compounds are necessary to be identified, as presenting high activity against Leishmania parasites, but low toxicity in mammalian hosts. Flau-A is a naphthoquinone derivative recently showed to presents an in vitro effective action against Leishmania amazonensis and L. infantum species. In the present work, the in vivo efficacy of Flau-A, which was incorporated into a Poloxamer 407-based micelle system, was evaluated in a murine model against L. amazonensis infection. Amphotericin B (AmB) and Ambisome were used as controls. The animals were infected and later treated with the compounds. Thirty days after the treatment, parasitological and immunological parameters were evaluated. Results showed that AmB, Ambisome , Flau-A or Flau-A/M-treated animals presented significantly lower average lesion diameter and parasite burden in tissue and organs evaluated, when compared to the control (saline and micelle) groups. Flau-A or Flau-A/M-treated mice were those presenting the most significant reductions in the parasite burden, when compared to the others. These animals developed also a more polarized antileishmanial Th1 immune response, which was based on significantly higher levels of IFN-γ, IL-12, TNF-α, GM-CSF, and parasite-specific IgG2a isotype; associated with low levels of IL-4, IL-10, and IgG1 antibody. The absence of toxicity was found in these animals, although mice receiving AmB have showed high levels of renal and hepatic damage markers. In conclusion, results suggested that the Flau-A/M compound may be considered as a possible therapeutic target to be evaluated against human leishmaniasis.

A screening test based on hematological and histological biomarkers to evaluate the environmental impacts in tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) from a protected area in Maranhão, Brazilian Amazon.

Chemosphere; 214: 445-451, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30273878


Nowadays biomonitoring programs can benefit with mathematical models able to correlate biomarkers to monitor water pollution. The aim of this study was to develop a screening test based on hematological parameters and histological lesions in tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum), to allow the assessment of environmental impacts on fish inhabiting a protected area in Maranhão inside of Brazilian Amazon. Samples collected during three years (2012, 2013 and 2014) were grouped by season (dry and rainy) Water samples were also collected for physical chemistry analysis. Blood samples were stained with Acridine Orange to detect micronuclei and erythrocyte abnormalities. Gill tissues were stained with hematoxylin and counterstained with alcoholic eosin, and histopathological lesions were scored on a scale of 1-3, being 1 = minimal pathological importance, 2 = moderate pathological importance and 3 = marked pathological importance. A screening test for evaluating environmental impact was developed by fitting the measured data (necrosis, erythrocyte abnormalities, number of micronuclei) from tambaqui. A three-dimensional surface was fit to the empirical data. Our proposed model predicted the probability of necrosis (observed in euthanized animals) based on the numbers of micronuclei and abnormal erythrocytes (observed in blood samples from live animals) (correlation coefficient R = 0.89). The methodology could be applied for predicting contamination histories (chronic pollution that induces branchial lesions) in rivers using the micronucleus and erythrocyte abnormalities of the fishes (with a simple blood sample).

Male sexual enhancers from the Peruvian Amazon.

J Ethnopharmacol; 229: 167-179, 2019 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30339977


ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Selected Peruvian Amazon plants are macerated into sugar cane distillates to prepare alcoholic beverages used to improve male sexual performance. The tree bark from Campsiandra angustifolia Spruce ex Benth (Fabaceae), Swartzia polyphylla DC (Fabaceae), Minquartia guianensis Aubl. (Olacaceae) and Thynantus panurensis (Bureau) Sandwith (Bignoniaceae) usually are used as crude drugs in mixtures of several ingredients. AIM OF STUDY: Describe the chemical composition of the most traded traditional male enhancer beverages, namely "Levántate Lazaro" and "Siete veces sin sacarla", and their single crude drug constituents, as well as their inhibitory activity towards the enzyme phosphodiesterase-5. The presence of pro-sexual drugs such as Sildenafil® and derivatives was assessed in the samples. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Single plant constituents and the preparation mixtures were purchased in the Mercado Belen (Iquitos, Peru). Chemical profiling was carried out by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. The extracts were assessed for phosphodiesterase-5 inhibition. The occurrence of pro-sexual drugs was determined by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. RESULTS: Chemical profiling allowed the identification of condensed tannins as the main constituents of C. angustifolia and S. polyphylla, hydrolysable tannins for M. guianensis, and C-glycosides for T. panurensis. The traditional preparations showed similar composition compared to the crude drugs. At 200 µg/mL, the traditional preparation "Levántate Lázaro" and "Siete veces sin sacarla" inhibited the phosphodiesterase-5 by 49.88% and 27.90%, respectively. No adulterations with pro-sexual drugs were found in the samples. From the crude drugs, low effect was found for the extracts of S. polyphylla and T. panurensis and high activity for C. angustifolia which inhibited the enzyme by 89.37% and 81.32% at 200 and 100 µg/mL, respectively. CONCLUSION: The traditional preparations used to improve sexual performance in the Peruvian Amazon showed activity as phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors. The most active ingredient of the traditional preparations was C. angustifolia, with some contribution from T. panurensis. These results encourage additional studies, including animal models to confirm the male enhancer effect of the preparations.

Characterization of molecular biomarkers of mercury exposure to muscle tissue of Plagioscion squamosissimus and Colossoma macropomum from the Amazon region.

Food Chem; 276: 247-254, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30409591


Mercury has the ability to bind to a variety of biomolecules, which can compromise its structure and functionality and thus promote its toxic effects. The aim of this study is to identify possible mercury biomarkers in muscle samples of Plagioscion squamosissimus (carnivorous fish) and Colossoma macropomum (omnivorous fish), from the Amazon region. The muscle proteome of fish species was separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE), and the total mercury concentrations in protein spots were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The protein spots containing mercury were characterized by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). The mercury concentrations in the protein spots were in the range of 1.10 ±â€¯0.02-23.90 ±â€¯0.33 µg g . The proteins phosphoglycerate mutase 2 (P. squamosissimus), hemoglobin ß and cytochrome P450scc (C. macropomum), identified by ESI-MS/MS and showing the highest values of mercury concentration, may be considered possible mercury biomarkers.
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