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BMC Public Health; 17(1): 40, 2017 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28061850
AbstractBACKGROUND: In large scale cooking, food is handled by many individuals, thereby increasing the chances of food contamination due to improper handling. Deliberate or accidental contamination of food during large scale production might endanger the health of consumers, and have very expensive repercussions on a country. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the food safety knowledge, attitudes, and practices among institutional food- handlers in Ghana. METHODS: The study was conducted using a descriptive, cross-sectional survey of 29 institutions by conducting face to face interview and administration of questionnaire to two hundred and thirty-five (235) institutional food-handlers. The questionnaire was peer-reviewed and pilot tested in three institutions in the Upper East Region of Ghana, before the final version was distributed to food-handlers. The questionnaire was structured into five distinctive parts to collect information on (i) demographic characteristics, (ii) employees' work satisfaction, (iii) knowledge on food safety, (iv) attitudes towards food safety and (v) food hygiene practices. RESULTS: Majority of the food-handlers were between 41-50 years (39.1%). Female respondents were (76.6%). In our study, the food-handlers were knowledgeable about hygienic practices, cleaning and sanitation procedures. Almost all of the food-handlers were aware of the critical role of general sanitary practices in the work place, such as hand washing (98.7% correct answers), using gloves (77.9%), proper cleaning of the instruments/utensils (86.4%) and detergent use (72.8%). On disease transmission, the results indicates that 76.2% of the food- handlers did not know that Salmonella is a food borne pathogens and 70.6% did not know that hepatitis A is a food borne pathogen. However, 81.7% handlers agreed that typhoid fever is transmitted by food and 87.7% agreed that bloody diarrhea is transmitted by food. Logistic regression analysis testing four models showed statistically significant differences (p < 0.05), for models in which the explanatory variable was the level of education. CONCLUSIONS: In generally, the institutional food-handlers have satisfactory knowledge in food safety but this does not translate into strict hygienic practices during processing and handling food products.
Three-step effluent chlorination increases disinfection efficiency and reduces DBP formation and toxicity.
Chemosphere; 2016 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27919529
AbstractChlorination is extensively applied for disinfecting sewage effluents, but it unintentionally generates disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Using seawater for toilet flushing introduces a high level of bromide into domestic sewage. Chlorination of sewage effluent rich in bromide causes the formation of brominated DBPs. The objectives of achieving a disinfection goal, reducing disinfectant consumption and operational costs, as well as diminishing adverse effects to aquatic organisms in receiving water body remain a challenge in sewage treatment. In this study, we have demonstrated that, with the same total chlorine dosage, a three-step chlorination (dosing chlorine by splitting it into three equal portions with a 5-min time interval for each portion) was significantly more efficient in disinfecting a primary saline sewage effluent than a one-step chlorination (dosing chlorine at one time). Compared to one-step chlorination, three-step chlorination enhanced the disinfection efficiency by up to 0.73-log reduction of Escherichia coli. The overall DBP formation resulting from one-step and three-step chlorination was quantified by total organic halogen measurement. Compared to one-step chlorination, the DBP formation in three-step chlorination was decreased by up to 23.4%. The comparative toxicity of one-step and three-step chlorination was evaluated in terms of the development of embryo-larva of a marine polychaete Platynereis dumerilii. The results revealed that the primary sewage effluent with three-step chlorination was less toxic than that with one-step chlorination, indicating that three-step chlorination could reduce the potential adverse effects of disinfected sewage effluents to aquatic organisms in the receiving marine water.
Monitoring sanitation and hygiene in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development: A review through the lens of human rights.
Sci Total Environ; 2016 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27989472
AbstractInternational monitoring of drinking water and sanitation has been jointly carried out by WHO and UNICEF through their Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP). With the end of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) era in 2015, the JMP has proposed a post-2015 framework for integrated monitoring of water and sanitation targets included in the Sustainable Development Goal no. 6. This article discusses how each element of the proposed sanitation target and corresponding indicators can be understood from a human rights perspective. Building on the MDGs, and although some of the weaknesses and gaps persist, the discussion suggests that the post-2015 proposal is a step forward towards a monitoring framework where human rights elements related to sanitation are effectively promoted. In addition, to support the interpretation and implementation of the normative content of human rights obligations related to sanitation, the study proposes a reduced set of easy-to-assess indicators to measure the normative criteria of this right, which are then grouped in a multidimensional framework to describe increasing levels of sanitation service. To do this, the study combines literature review and specific local experience from three case studies. It is shown that the proposed monitoring tools, namely the indicators and the multidimensional indicator framework, provide guidance on monitoring the human right to sanitation. In doing so, they might ultimately help sector stakeholders in the realization of this right.
Efficiency of a cleaning protocol for the removal of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus strains in dairy plants.
Int J Food Microbiol; 238: 295-301, 2016 Dec 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27716472
AbstractStaphylococci are considered a major concern in dairy plants mainly due to the intensive production flow, automation of processing plants and increased demand in the microbiological quality of dairy products. This study aimed to identify S. aureus strains isolated from three Brazilian dairy plants, evaluate the influence of time, temperature and contact surface on the bacterial adhesion process, as well as the efficiency of simulated hygiene and sanitation protocol in removing adhered cells. For genotypic analyses, the presence of icaA and icaD in strains was evaluated. Adherence assays were performed in biofilm reactor, comparing the influence of 2 temperatures (5°C and 35°C), 2 surfaces (stainless steel and polypropylene) and 4 contact times (3, 6, 12h and post-sanitization). To evaluate the process effectiveness in removing adhered cells, neutral detergent and sanitizing agent based on sodium hypochlorite were used in order to simulate the situation observed in one of the dairy plants analyzed. The presence of icaA and icaD genes was determined in 75.3% and 77.6% of strains, respectively; 70.6% of isolates showed both genes, whereas 17.6% showed no genes. Genes for enterotoxin production were found in all samples, relating to SEG and SEH toxins. The number of cells adhered on both surfaces was about 3 and 6 log CFU/cm at temperatures of 5°C and 35°C, respectively, for most situations evaluated, with significant increase over the evaluation period. In general, the temperature of 35°C favored greater adherence of S. aureus. At 5°C, there was a considerable number of adhered cells, but in populations significantly lower than those observed at 35°C. The cleaning and sanitizing protocol was ineffective in removing adhered cells; better performance of sodium hypochlorite was observed at 5°C, which should be related to lower adherence observed at this temperature. Thus, the process was not able to reduce the number of S. aureus bacteria adhered on both surfaces to safe levels under the conditions evaluated.
Flugzeugdesinfektion : Geeignete Desinfektionsmittel und Standardverfahren bei hochansteckenden Krankheiten. / Disinfection of aircraft : Appropriate disinfectants and standard operating procedures for highly infectious diseases.
Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz; 59(12): 1544-1548, 2016 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27785522
AbstractFor infectious diseases caused by highly pathogenic agents (e. g., Ebola/Lassa fever virus, SARS-/MERS-CoV, pandemic influenza virus) which have the potential to spread over several continents within only a few days, international Health Protection Authorities have taken appropriate measures to limit the consequences of a possible spread. A crucial point in this context is the disinfection of an aircraft that had a passenger on board who is suspected of being infected with one of the mentioned diseases. Although, basic advice on hygiene and sanitation on board an aircraft is given by the World Health Organization, these guidelines lack details on available and effective substances as well as standardized operating procedures (SOP). The purpose of this paper is to give guidance on the choice of substances that were tested by a laboratory of Lufthansa Technik and found compatible with aircraft components, as well as to describe procedures which ensure a safe and efficient disinfection of civil aircrafts. This guidance and the additional SOPs are made public and are available as mentioned in this paper.
Impact of health education intervention on food safety and hygiene of street vendors: A pilot study.
Med J Armed Forces India; 72(3): 265-9, 2016 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27546967
AbstractBACKGROUND: Street foods are major source of food to millions of people. However, these are frequently associated with food-borne illnesses. It is imperative that street food vendors are educated to maintain hygiene and hence safety of food. With this background, a pilot study was undertaken to assess the impact of health education intervention on food safety and hygiene of street vendors. The aim of this study was to assess impact of health education intervention on food safety of street vendors. METHODS: It was a before and after study conducted in twenty street vendors of an urban area. Tool based on Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) 2012 was prepared with scoring system to rate hygiene and sanitation of street vendors (score 0-156). Health education was given to all and scores of these vendors on same tool were reassessed after four weeks. RESULTS: Mean age of the study subjects was 35 ± 13.2 years. Highest score attained in BIS tool for food safety was 104 out of 156 (66.6%). No vendor was found to have achieved excellent score. Reasons for poor score were poor condition of vending cart, location, lack personal hygiene and incorrect and unsafe food handling practices. After intervention, it was observed that there was no significant improvement in overall score of vendors. However, scores in domains of personal habits, hygiene and food handling practices improved significantly after intervention (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The street vendors do not meet required standards given by BIS for food safety. Health education alone can only partly improve food safety practices of street vendors.
Can Sierra Leone maintain the equitable delivery of their Free Health Care Initiative? The case for more contextualised interventions: results of a cross-sectional survey.
BMC Health Serv Res; 16: 258, 2016 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27412299
AbstractBACKGROUND: In 2010, the Ministry of Health and Sanitation in Sierra Leone launched their Free Health Care Initiative (FHCI) for pregnant and lactating mothers and children under-5. Despite an increase in the update of services, the inequitable distribution of health services and health facilities remain important factors underlying the poor performance of health systems to deliver effective services. This study identifies current gaps in service delivery across two rural locations served by the same District Health Management Team (DHMT). METHODS: We employed a cross-sectional household survey using a two-stage probability sampling method to obtain a sample of the population across two rural locations in Bonthe District: the riverine and the mainland. Overall, a total of 393 households across 121 villages were surveyed in the riverine and 397 households across 130 villages were sampled on the mainland. Maternal health, child health and sanitation indicators in Bonthe District were compared using Pearson Chi-Squared test with Yates' Continuity Correction across the two areas. RESULTS: Women across the two regions self-reported significantly different uptake of family planning services. Children on the mainland had significantly greater rates of health facility based deliveries; being born in the presence of a skilled birth attendant; completed immunisation schedules; and higher rates of being brought to the health centre within 24 h of developing a fever or a suspected acute respiratory infection. Households on the mainland also reported significantly greater use of treated water and unrestricted access to a latrine. CONCLUSIONS: If the government of Sierra Leone is going to deliver on their promise to free health care for pregnant women and their children, and do so in a way that reduces inequalities, greater attention must be paid to the existing service delivery gaps within each District. This is particularly relevant to health policy post-Ebola, as it highlights the need for more contextualised service delivery to ensure equitable access for women and children.
The Knowledge Base for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene.
Int J Environ Res Public Health; 13(6)2016 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27240389
AbstractSafe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are fundamental to an improved standard of living. Globally, 91% of households used improved drinking water sources in 2015, while for improved sanitation it is 68%. Wealth disparities are stark, with rural populations, slum dwellers and marginalized groups lagging significantly behind. Service coverage is significantly lower when considering the new water and sanitation targets under the sustainable development goals (SDGs) which aspire to a higher standard of 'safely managed' water and sanitation. Lack of access to WASH can have an economic impact as much as 7% of Gross Domestic Product, not including the social and environmental consequences. Research points to significant health and socio-economic consequences of poor nutritional status, child growth and school performance caused by inadequate WASH. Groundwater over-extraction and pollution of surface water bodies have serious impacts on water resource availability and biodiversity, while climate change exacerbates the health risks of water insecurity. A significant literature documents the beneficial impacts of WASH interventions, and a growing number of impact evaluation studies assess how interventions are optimally financed, implemented and sustained. Many innovations in behavior change and service delivery offer potential for scaling up services to meet the SDGs.
Ethiop J Health Sci; 26(2): 161-70, 2016 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27222629
AbstractBACKGROUND: Food safety problems are particularly becoming an increasingly serious threat to public health in developing countries. This study was conducted to assess microbiological safety of street vended foods from May to November, 2014 in Jigjiga City. METHODS: A cross-sectional design was used to answer questions concerning the current status of food hygiene and sanitation practire of street food vending sites. Interview and observational assessments were used to collect socio-demographic data about street food venders. One hundred thirty-two samples of street foods were aseptically collected from four 'kebeles' of Jigjiga City. Both descriptive and analytical statistical methods were applied. RESULTS: The majority of the street food vendors were women, 120(90.9%), with the average age group of 23-49 years, (42.85%), and 99(66.7%) them were illiterate. The study revealed that 95(72%) of the food samples had pathogenic bacterial contaminations. Three different bacterial species were isolated: E. coli 68(51.5%), S. aureus 85(64.4%) and 26(19.7%) Salmonella species. The highest incidence of S. aureus 23/33(69%) was seen in 'Sambusa'; the highest incidence of E. coli 24/33(73.5%) was observed in 'Pasta', while the highest Salmonella incidence was observed in 'Ades'. CONCLUSION: This study revealed that there is a reasonable gap on food safety knowledge among street food venders. The microbial profile was also higher compared to standards set by the World Health Organization. Due attention should be given by the government to improve knowledge about food safety and the quality standard of street foods sold in the City.
The investigation of the sludge reduction efficiency and mechanisms in oxic-settling-anaerobic (OSA) process.
Water Sci Technol; 73(10): 2311-23, 2016.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27191551
AbstractThis paper aims to provide a full understanding of the sludge reduction mechanisms in the oxic-settling-anaerobic (OSA) process and presents an evaluation of the sludge reduction efficiencies and sludge characteristics in this process compared to the conventional activated sludge process. Fifty-eight percent reduction in observed yield in the OSA process was achieved compared to the control system at the end of the operational period with no deterioration of effluent quality. The settleability of sludge in the OSA process was also found to be better than that of the control system in terms of sludge volume index. In long-term operation, capillary suction time and specific resistance to filtration values confirmed that the OSA process showed good filterability characteristics. The results of batch experiments showed that higher endogenous respiration in the systems might lead to lower sludge production and that energy uncoupling had only a limited impact on sludge reduction.
Improving health in the Arctic region through safe and affordable access to household running water and sewer services: an Arctic Council initiative.
Int J Circumpolar Health; 75: 31149, 2016.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27132632
AbstractImportant health disparities have been documented among the peoples of the Arctic and subarctic, including those related to limited access to in-home improved drinking water and sanitation services. Although improving water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) has been a focus of the United Nations for decades, the Arctic region has received little attention in this regard. A growing body of evidence highlights inequalities across the region for the availability of in-home drinking WASH services and for health indicators associated with these services. In this review, we highlight relevant data and describe an initiative through the Arctic Council's Sustainable Development Working Group to characterize the extent of WASH services in Arctic nations, the related health indicators and climate-related vulnerabilities to WASH services. With this as a baseline, efforts to build collaborations across the Arctic will be undertaken to promote innovations that can extend the benefits of water and sanitation services to all residents.
Nitrogen and carbon removal efficiency of a polyvinyl alcohol gel based moving bed biofilm reactor system.
Water Sci Technol; 73(7): 1511-9, 2016.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27054722
AbstractIn this study, the effectiveness of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) gel beads in treating domestic wastewater was investigated: a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) configuration (oxic-anoxic and oxic) with 10% filling fraction of biomass carriers was operated in a continuously fed regime at temperatures of 25, 20, 15 and 6 °C with hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 32 h, 18 h, 12 h and 9 h, respectively. Influent loadings were in the range of 0.22-1.22 kg N m(-3) d(-1) (total nitrogen (TN)), 1.48-7.82 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) m(-3) d(-1) (organic) and 0.12-0.89 kg NH4(+)-N m(-3)d(-1) (ammonia nitrogen). MBBR performance resulted in the maximum TN removal rate of 1.22 kg N m(-3) d(-1) when the temperature and HRT were 6 °C and 9 h, respectively. The carbon removal rate at this temperature and HRT was 6.82 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). Ammonium removal rates ranged from 0.13 to 0.75 kg NH4(+)-N m(-3) d(-1) during the study. Total phosphorus and suspended solid removal efficiency ranged from 84 to 98% and 85 to 94% at an influent concentration of 3.3-7.1 mg/L and 74-356 mg/L, respectively. The sludge wasted from the MBBR exhibited light weight features characterized by sludge volume index value of 185 mL/g. Experimental data obtained can be useful in further developing the concept of PVA gel based wastewater treatment systems.
Efficiency of wastewater treatment in SBR and IFAS-MBSBBR systems in specified technological conditions.
Water Sci Technol; 73(6): 1349-56, 2016.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27003075
AbstractThe objective of this study is to compare wastewater treatment effectiveness in sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and integrated fixed-film activated sludge-moving-bed sequencing batch biofilm reactor (IFAS-MBSBBR) systems in specific technological conditions. The comparison of these two technologies was based on the following assumptions, shared by both series, I and II: the reactor's active volume was 28 L; 8-hour cycle of reactor's work, with the same sequence and duration of its consecutive phases; and the dissolved oxygen concentration in the aerobic phases was maintained at a level of 3.0 mg O2/L. For both experimental series (I and II), comparable effectiveness of organic compound (chemical oxygen demand (COD)) removal, nitrification and biological phosphorus removal has been obtained at levels of 95.1%, 97% and 99%, respectively. The presence of the carrier improved the efficiency of total nitrogen removal from 86.3% to 91.7%. On the basis of monitoring tests, it has been found that the ratio of simultaneous denitrification in phases with aeration to the total efficiency of denitrification in the cycle was 1.5 times higher for IFAS-MBSBBR.
Assessment of microbial viability in municipal sludge following ultrasound and microwave pretreatments and resulting impacts on the efficiency of anaerobic sludge digestion.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol; 100(6): 2855-68, 2016 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26590585
AbstractA range of ultrasonication (US) and microwave irradiation (MW) sludge pretreatments were compared to determine the extent of cellular destruction in micro-organisms within secondary sludge and how this cellular destruction translated to anaerobic digestion (AD). Cellular lysis/inactivation was measured using two microbial viability assays, (1) Syto 16® Green and Sytox® Orange counter-assay to discern the integrity of cellular membranes and (2) a fluorescein diacetate assay to understand relative enzymatic activity. A range of MW intensities (2.17-6.48 kJ/g total solids or TS, coinciding temperatures of 60-160 °C) were selected for comparison via viability assays; a range of corresponding US intensities (2.37-27.71 kJ/g TS, coinciding sonication times of 10-60 min at different amplitudes) were also compared to this MW range. The MW pretreatment of thickened waste activated sludge (tWAS) caused fourfold to fivefold greater cell death than non-pretreated and US-pretreated tWAS. The greatest microbial destruction occurred at MW intensities greater than 2.62 kJ/g TS of sludge, after which increased energy input via MW did not appear to cause greater microbial death. In addition, the optimal MW pretreatment (80 °C, 2.62 kJ/g TS) and corresponding US pretreatment (10 min, 60 % amplitude, 2.37 kJ/g TS) were administered to the tWAS of a mixed sludge and fed to anaerobic digesters over sludge retention times (SRTs) of 20, 14, and 7 days to compare effects of feed pretreatment on AD efficiency. The digester utilizing MW-pretreated tWAS (80 °C, 2.62 kJ/g TS) had the greatest fecal coliform removal (73.4 and 69.8 % reduction, respectively), greatest solids removal (44.2 % TS reduction), and highest overall methane production (248.2 L CH4/kg volatile solids) at 14- and 7-day SRTs. However, despite the fourfold to fivefold increases in cell death upon pretreatment, improvements from the digester fed MW-pretreated sludge were marginal (i.e., increases in efficiency of less than 3-10 %) and likely due to a smaller proportion of cells (10-20 %) in the polymeric network and mixed sludge fed to digesters.
Enhancing nitrogen removal efficiency and reducing nitrate liquor recirculation ratio by improving simultaneous nitrification and denitrification in integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) process.
Water Sci Technol; 73(4): 827-34, 2016.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26901725
AbstractAn integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) process (G1) and an activated sludge anoxic-oxic process (G2) were operated at nitrate liquor recirculation ratio (R) of 100, 200 and 300% to investigate the feasibility of enhancing nitrogen removal efficiency (RTN) and reducing R by improving simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) in the IFAS process. The results showed that the effluent NH4(+)-N and total nitrogen (TN) of G1 at R of 200% were less than 1.5 and 14.5 mg/L, satisfying the Chinese discharge standard (NH4(+)-N < 5 mg/L; TN < 15 mg/L). However, the effluent NH4(+)-N and TN of G2 at R of 300% were higher than 8.5 and 15.3 mg/L. It indicated that better RTN could be achieved at a lower R in the IFAS process. The polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis results implied that nitrifiers and denitrifiers co-existed in one microbial community, facilitating the occurrence of SND in the aerobic reactor of G1, and the contribution of SND to TN removal efficiency ranged 15-19%, which was the main reason that the RTN was improved in the IFAS process. Therefore, the IFAS process was an effective method for improving RTN and reducing R. In practical application, this advantage of the IFAS process can decrease the electricity consumption for nitrate liquor recirculation flow, thereby saving operational costs.
Water Sci Technol; 73(1): 60-8, 2016.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26744935
AbstractThe impact of pH variation on aerobic granular sludge stability and performance was investigated. A 9-day alkaline (pH=9) and acidic (pH=6) pH shocks were imposed on mature granules with simultaneous chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrogen and phosphorus removal. The imposed alkaline pH shock (pH 9) reduced nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiency from 88% and 98% to 66% and 50%, respectively, with no further recovery. However, acidic pH shock (pH 6) did not have a major impact on nutrient removal and the removal efficiencies recovered to their initial values after 3 days of operation under the new pH condition. Operating the reactors under alkaline pH induced granules breakage and resulted in an increased solids concentration in the effluent and a significant decrease in the size of the bio-particles, while acidic pH did not have significant impacts on granules stability. Changes in chemical structure and composition of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) matrix were suggested as the main factors inducing granules instability under high pH.
Evaluation of removal efficiency of human antibiotics in wastewater treatment plants in Bangkok, Thailand.
Water Sci Technol; 73(1): 182-91, 2016.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26744950
AbstractThis study aimed to investigate the antibiotic concentration at each stage of treatment and to evaluate the removal efficiency of antibiotics in different types of secondary and advanced treatment, as well as the effects of the location of their discharge points on the occurrence of antibiotics in surface water. Eight target antibiotics and four hospital wastewater treatment plants in Bangkok with different conventional and advanced treatment options were investigated. Antibiotics were extracted by solid phase extraction and analysed by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The antibiotic with the highest concentration at influent was cefazolin at 13,166 ng/L, while the antibiotic with the highest concentration at effluent was sulfamethoxazole at 1,499 ng/L. The removal efficiency of antibiotics from lowest to highest was sulfamethoxazole, piperacillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, dicloxacillin, ciprofloxacin, cefazolin, and cefalexin. The adopted conventional treatment systems could not completely remove all antibiotics from wastewater. However, using advanced treatments or disinfection units such as chlorination and UV could increase the antibiotic removal efficiency. Chlorination was more effective than UV, ciprofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole concentration fluctuated during the treatment process, and sulfamethoxazole was the most difficult to remove. Both these antibiotics should be studied further regarding their contamination in sludge and suitable treatment options for their removal.
J Food Prot; 79(1): 169-73, 2016 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26735046
AbstractSoy wara is a common ready-to-eat food whose production and sale are currently unregulated. Microbiological sampling indicated that 21% of the samples had standard plate counts exceeding 100,000 CFU/g, and 14% had Staphylococcus aureus counts higher than 100,000 CFU/g. The occurrence of S. aureus at these levels can result in food poisoning. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated in 14.4% of the samples, although the counts were generally low, typically <1,000 CFU/g. Although counts of L. monocytogenes were low, immunocompromised individuals and children may particularly be at risk of listeriosis. All samples showed low counts of Bacillus cereus (< 10,000 CFU/g). Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica were detected in 5.6 and 2.2% of all samples, respectively, indicating fecal contamination and possible links to gastroenteritis and enteric fever. Fungal counts were variable, ranging from 6.0 × 10(3) to 2.0 × 10(4) CFU/g, with Alternaria spp., Fusarium spp., and Rhizopus spp. being the predominant species. Aluminum content was as high as 0.776 mg of Al per g in soy wara processed with alum. Significantly higher aluminum contents were observed in alum-processed soy wara compared with those processed with lime or ogi (an acid-fermented gruel of either maize [Zea mays], sorghum [Sorghum bicolor], or millet [Pennisetum glaucum]) (P < 0.05). These results indicate the need to improve personal hygiene and environmental sanitation in the production and preparation of soy wara, and further studies are warranted for the implication of the accumulation of aluminum.
COD, nutrient removal and disinfection efficiency of a combined subsurface and surface flow constructed wetland: A case study.
Int J Phytoremediation; 18(4): 416-22, 2016.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26552725
AbstractA constructed wetland system composed of a subsurface flow wetland, a surface flow wetland and a facultative pond was studied from July 2008 until May 2012. It was created to treat the domestic sewage produced by a hamlet of 150 inhabitants. Monthly physicochemical and microbiological analyses were carried out in order to evaluate the removal efficiency of each stage of the process and of the total treatment system. Pair-wise Student's t-tests showed that the mean removal of each considered parameter was significantly different (α = 0.05) between the various treatment phases. Two-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD tests were used to find significant differences between wetland types and seasons in the removal efficiency of the considered water quality parameters. Significant differences in percent removal efficiency between the treatment phases were observed for total phosphorus, total nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen and organic load (expressed as Chemical Oxygen Demand). In general, the wastewater treatment was carried by the sub-superficial flow phase mainly, both in growing season and in quiescence season. Escherichia coli removal ranged from 98% in quiescence season to >99% in growing season (approximately 2-3 orders of magnitude). The inactivation of fecal bacteria was not influenced by the season, but only by the treatment phase.
Improving health in the Arctic region through safe and affordable access to household running water and sewer services: an Arctic Council initiative.
Int J Circumpolar Health; 75(1): 31149, 2016 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28156399