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Resultados 1 - 20 de 21.091
1.

Diversity of Dengue Virus-3 Genotype III in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Acta Trop; 2018 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29621534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dengue is the most important arboviral disease in tropical and subtropical countries. Dispersal of the vector and an increase in migratory flow between countries have led to large epidemics and severe clinical outcomes. Over the past 20 years, dengue epidemics have become more wide-spread and frequent. Previous studies have shown that dengue is endemic in Jeddah, Makkah and Al-Madinah in western Saudi Arabia as well as in Jazan region in the southern part of the country. The four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) have been reported from western Saudi Arabia. It has been suggested that pilgrims could play a significant and unique role in DENV-1 and DENV-2 introduction into Saudi Arabia, especially in the cities of Jeddah, Makkah and Al-Madinah during Hajj and Umrah seasons. However, only limited data on DENV-3 in Saudi Arabia are available. METHODS: All available DENV-3 sequences published and unpublished from Saudi Arabia and other countries were retrieved from Genbank and gene sequence repository and phylogenetically analyzed to examine the diversity of DENV-3 into the city of Jeddah. RESULTS: Based on the analysis of the envelope gene and non-structural 1 (E/NS1) junction sequences, we show that there were at least four independent introductions of DENV-3, all from genotype III into Jeddah. The first introduction was most probably before 1997 as Saudi virus isolates from 1997 formed a cluster without any close relationship to other globally circulating isolates, suggesting their local circulation from previous introduction events. Two introductions were most probably in 2004 with isolates closely-related to isolates from Africa and India (Asia), in addition to another introduction in 2014 with isolates clustering with those from Singapore (Asia). CONCLUSIONS: Our data shows that only genotype III isolates of DENV-3 are circulating in Jeddah and highlights the potential role of pilgrims in DENV-3 importation into western Saudi Arabia and subsequent exportation to their home countries during Hajj and Umrah seasons. Therefore, it is highly recommended to establish DENV sentinel surveillance programs targeting clinical cases and the mosquito vector in the country to implement effective control measures and to minimize the burden of the disease in the kingdom.
2.

Dengue virus-like particles mimic the antigenic properties of the infectious dengue virus envelope.

Virol J; 15(1): 60, 2018 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29609659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 4 dengue serotypes (DENV) are mosquito-borne pathogens that are associated with severe hemorrhagic disease. DENV particles have a lipid bilayer envelope that anchors two membrane glycoproteins prM and E. Two E-protein monomers form head-to-tail homodimers and three E-dimers align to form "rafts" that cover the viral surface. Some human antibodies that strongly neutralize DENV bind to quaternary structure epitopes displayed on E protein dimers or higher order structures forming the infectious virus. Expression of prM and E in cell culture leads to the formation of DENV virus-like particles (VLPs) which are smaller than wildtype virus particles and replication defective due to the absence of a viral genome. There is no data available that describes the antigenic landscape on the surface of flavivirus VLPs in comparison to the better studied infectious virion. METHODS: A large panel of well characterized antibodies that recognize epitope of ranging complexity were used in biochemical analytics to obtain a comparative antigenic surface view of VLPs in respect to virus particles. DENV patient serum depletions were performed the show the potential of VLPs in serological diagnostics. RESULTS: VLPs were confirmed to be heterogeneous in size morphology and maturation state. Yet, we show that many highly conformational and quaternary structure-dependent antibody epitopes found on virus particles are efficiently displayed on DENV1-4 VLP surfaces as well. Additionally, DENV VLPs can efficiently be used as antigens to deplete DENV patient sera from serotype specific antibody populations. CONCLUSIONS: This study aids in further understanding epitopic landscape of DENV VLPs and presents a comparative antigenic surface view of VLPs in respect to virus particles. We propose the use VLPs as a safe and practical alternative to infectious virus as a vaccine and diagnostic antigen.
3.

Dengue forecasting in São Paulo city with generalized additive models, artificial neural networks and seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average models.

PLoS One; 13(4): e0195065, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29608586

RESUMO

Globally, the number of dengue cases has been on the increase since 1990 and this trend has also been found in Brazil and its most populated city-São Paulo. Surveillance systems based on predictions allow for timely decision making processes, and in turn, timely and efficient interventions to reduce the burden of the disease. We conducted a comparative study of dengue predictions in São Paulo city to test the performance of trained seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average models, generalized additive models and artificial neural networks. We also used a naïve model as a benchmark. A generalized additive model with lags of the number of cases and meteorological variables had the best performance, predicted epidemics of unprecedented magnitude and its performance was 3.16 times higher than the benchmark and 1.47 higher that the next best performing model. The predictive models captured the seasonal patterns but differed in their capacity to anticipate large epidemics and all outperformed the benchmark. In addition to be able to predict epidemics of unprecedented magnitude, the best model had computational advantages, since its training and tuning was straightforward and required seconds or at most few minutes. These are desired characteristics to provide timely results for decision makers. However, it should be noted that predictions are made just one month ahead and this is a limitation that future studies could try to reduce.
4.

Operational utility of the reverse-transcription recombinase polymerase amplification for detection of dengue virus.

BMC Infect Dis; 18(1): 169, 2018 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29642856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A method for rapid detection of dengue virus using the reverse-transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) was recently developed, evaluated and made ready for deployment. However, reliance solely on the evaluation performed by experienced researchers in a well-structured and well-equipped reference laboratory may overlook the potential intrinsic problems that may arise during deployment of the assay into new application sites, especially for users unfamiliar with the test. Appropriate assessment of this newly developed assay by users who are unfamiliar with the assay is, therefore, vital. METHODS: An operational utility test to elucidate the efficiency and effectiveness of the dengue RT-RPA assay was conducted among a group of researchers new to the assay. Nineteen volunteer researchers with different research experience were recruited. The participants performed the RT-RPA assay and interpreted the test results according to the protocol provided. Deviation from the protocol was identified and tabulated by trained facilitators. Post-test questionnaires were conducted to determine the user satisfaction and acceptability of the dengue RT-RPA assay. RESULTS: All the participants completed the test and successfully interpreted the results according to the provided instructions, regardless of their research experience. Of the 19 participants, three (15.8%) performed the assay with no deviations and 16 (84.2%) performed the assay with only 1 to 5 deviations. The number of deviations from protocol, however, was not correlated with the user laboratory experience. The accuracy of the results was also not affected by user laboratory experience. The concordance of the assay results against that of the expected was at 89.3%. The user satisfaction towards the RT-RPA protocol and interpretation of results was 90% and 100%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The dengue RT-RPA assay can be successfully performed by simply following the provided written instructions. Deviations from the written protocols did not adversely affect the outcome of the assay. These suggest that the RT-RPA assay is indeed a simple, robust and efficient laboratory method for detection of dengue virus. Furthermore, high new user acceptance of the RT-RPA assay suggests that this assay could be successfully deployed into new laboratories where RT-RPA was not previously performed.
5.

Performance of the Trioplex real-time RT-PCR assay for detection of Zika, dengue, and chikungunya viruses.

Nat Commun; 9(1): 1391, 2018 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29643334

RESUMO

The emergence and spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) presented a challenge to the diagnosis of ZIKV infections in areas with transmission of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses. To facilitate detection of ZIKV infections, and differentiate these infections from DENV and CHIKV, we developed the Trioplex real-time RT-PCR assay (Trioplex assay). Here, we describe the optimization of multiplex and singleplex formats of the assay for a variety of chemistries and instruments to facilitate global standardization and implementation. We evaluated the analytical performance of all Trioplex modalities for detection of these three pathogens in serum and whole blood, and for ZIKV in urine. The limit of detection for the three viruses and in different RNA-extraction modalities is near 10 genome copy equivalents per milliliter (GCE/mL). Simultaneous testing of more than one specimen type from each patient provides a 6.4% additional diagnostic sensitivity. Overall, the high sensitivity of the Trioplex assay demonstrates the utility of this assay ascertaining Zika cases.
6.

Serum Cytokine Profiles in Patients with Dengue Fever at the Acute Infection Phase.

Dis Markers; 2018: 8403937, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29651328

RESUMO

Background: Dengue virus (DENV) is transmitted by mosquito and has been circulating in Guangdong, China, for over 30 years. Dengue infection causes mild to severe disease symptoms in human. Cytokine profiles were suggested to be crucial especially during the acute stage in the dengue infection. Aim: To determine the cytokine profiles at the acute stage in patients with primary or secondary dengue infection in Guangzhou city in the 2014 outbreak. Methods: We investigated 23 inflammatory cytokines in serum collected from dengue-infected patients and analyzed their correlations with their clinical indexes. Results: The concentrations of CXCL9, IP-10, CXCL11, IL-8, IL-10, and CCL2 in serum were significantly higher in the groups of DENV-infected patients during the first two weeks than those of control group while CCL17 and CXCL5 showed lower expression level in the patients. Among these cytokines, CXCL9, CCL17, and CXCL5 showed statistical difference between the groups of primary and secondary infections. The platelet count and lactate dehydrogenase were correlated with the level of CCL17 and MIP-1 /CXCL5, respectively, in the group of secondary infection. Conclusions: We determined the cytokine profiles in serum of the patients during the 2014 dengue outbreak. The expression of specific cytokines was associated with the secondary infection.
7.

Spatiotemporal responses of dengue fever transmission to the road network in an urban area.

Acta Trop; 183: 8-13, 2018 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29608873

RESUMO

Urbanization is one of the important factors leading to the spread of dengue fever. Recently, some studies found that the road network as an urbanization factor affects the distribution and spread of dengue epidemic, but the study of relationship between the distribution of dengue epidemic and road network is limited, especially in highly urbanized areas. This study explores the temporal and spatial spread characteristics of dengue fever in the distribution of road network by observing a dengue epidemic in the southern Chinese cities. Geographic information technology is used to extract the spatial location of cases and explore the temporal and spatial changes of dengue epidemic and its spatial relationship with road network. The results showed that there was a significant "severe" period in the temporal change of dengue epidemic situation, and the cases were mainly concentrated in the vicinity of narrow roads, the spread of the epidemic mainly along the high-density road network area. These results show that high-density road network is an important factor to the direction and scale of dengue epidemic. This information may be helpful to the development of related epidemic prevention and control strategies.
8.

Coat protein complex I facilitates dengue virus production.

Virus Res; 250: 13-20, 2018 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29608995

RESUMO

Dengue hemorrhagic fever is a life-threatening disease caused by the dengue virus (DENV). After DENV enters into host cells, it replicates to generate viral particles to infect other cells. DENV exploits components of the cellular trafficking pathway to achieve effective virion production. Understanding of the proteins required for this trafficking process is essential for revealing the pathogenesis of DENV infection. Coat protein complex and soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs), two host protein families in the cellular trafficking pathway, were investigated to elucidate their respective roles during DENV infection. Coat proteins (COPI and COPII) and SNAREs (STX 5 and NSF) were knocked down in a DENV-infected Huh7 cells by RNA interference. Depletion of COPI and COPII, but not of STX5 and NSF, decreased DENV production in DENV-infected Huh7 cells. DENV proteins, including DENV C, prM, E, and NS1, were significantly reduced in COPI-silenced DENV-infected Huh7 cells, when compared to those of control cells. COPI also facilitated DENV production in an endothelial cell line and in all DENV serotypes, indicating the importance of coat protein complex in facilitating DENV infection.
9.

Long-term epidemiological dynamics of dengue in Barbados - one of the English-speaking Caribbean countries.

Epidemiol Infect; : 1-8, 2018 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29655390

RESUMO

Using the dengue surveillance program, we prospectively collected data on all the suspected and confirmed cases of dengue in Barbados from 2006 to 2015. Data were analysed for demographic, seasonal and temporal dynamics of this disease in this country. The overall mean annual incidence rate of suspected and confirmed dengue over the study period was 0.49% (range 0.15%-0.99%) and 0.16% (range 0.05%-0.48%), respectively. There was a significant correlation between the mean monthly number of confirmed cases, the mean monthly rainfall and the mean monthly relative humidity percentage. Dengue in this population is predominantly an infection affecting children and young adults. The median age of the patients with both, suspected and confirmed dengue was 25 years and the highest proportion of cases was seen in the age group 0-15 years. The annual incidence rates of both the suspected and the confirmed cases showed an upward trend during the study period and this upward trend was more pronounced among children.
10.

Tatanan A from the Acorus calamus L. root inhibited dengue virus proliferation and infections.

Phytomedicine; 42: 258-267, 2018 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29655694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acorus calamus l. (Acoraceae) is a well-known traditional Chinese medicinal plant, whose root are historically mainly used to treat neurodegenerative diseases, and for cholera treatment. This datum strongly indicates the antimicrobial activity of A. calamus. PURPOSE: Our goal is to find the active constituents of A. calamus to treat dengue virus (DENV) infections, and to study the effects and mechanisms of these active substances. METHODS: The root of A. calamus was extracted by ethanol. Mosquito larva C6/36 cells were used for DENV2 replication and transfection host. Mouse kidney fibroblast cells (BHK-21) were used as a host cell to study the infection ability of the virus. DENV2-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) and plaque assay were used to evaluate the inhibitory effect of A. calamus extracts on DENV2 infectivity inhibition. The levels of E and NS1 protein expression were measured by real-time PCR and western blot assays. RESULTS: 12 compounds were isolated from ethanol extract of A. calamus root, tatanan A showed the best anti-DENV ability among these 12 compounds, which significantly alleviated DENV2-induced CPE and cytotoxicity effects, with an EC of 3.9 µM. In addition, RNA replication assay further confirmed the antivirus ability of tatanan A. Time-addition assay showed that tatanan A affected the early stage of viral RNA replication, which in turn inhibited mRNA and protein levels of DENV2. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrated the anti-DENV2 effect of tatanan A, in inhibiting DENV2 RNA replication and infections. In summary, tatanan A was found to be a novel natural DENV inhibitor and a potential candidate for the treatment of DENV infectious disease.
11.

Inhibition of dengue virus infection by mannoside glycolipid conjugates.

Antiviral Res; 2018 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29630976

RESUMO

Dengue virus (DENV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, causes severe and potentially fatal symptoms in millions of infected individuals each year. Although dengue fever represents a major global public health problem, the vaccines or antiviral drugs proposed so far have not shown sufficient efficacy and safety, calling for new antiviral developments. Here we have shown that a mannoside glycolipid conjugate (MGC) bearing a trimannose head with a saturated lipid chain inhibited DENV productive infection. It showed remarkable cell promiscuity, being active in human skin dendritic cells, hepatoma cell lines and Vero cells, and was active against all four DENV serotypes, with an IC in the low micromolar range. Time-of-addition experiments and structure-activity analyses revealed the importance of the lipid chain to interfere with an early viral infection step. This, together with a correlation between antiviral activity and membrane polarization by the lipid moiety indicated that the inhibitor functions by blocking viral envelope fusion with the endosome membrane. These finding establish MGCs as a novel class of antivirals against the DENV.
13.

Expression analysis of toll-like receptors of Dengue-infected cornea by real-time polymerase chain reaction.

Inflamm Res; 2018 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29632956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a significant role based on innate immune mechanism during viral infection. TLR signaling mechanism designates to protect the cells from invading viruses. The expression of TLRs during dengue virus (DENV) infection not yet well explained. This study evaluates the TLR gene expression from DENV-infected patient's cornea. METHODS: Reverse transcriptase PCR was performed for the detection and genotyping of viral nucleic acid from corneal grafts and DENV-infected cell suspension. TLR expression studies were done on DENV-infected cornea by real-time RT Profiler PCR Array. RESULTS: The reverse transcriptase PCR and genotyping confirmed the presence of DENV-3. TLR expression studies revealed the upregulated expression of TLR4, TLR7, TLR9 and TLR10. CONCLUSION: Molecular testing of DENV reveals that serological positivity induces transmission of the virus through cornea and stimulates the expression of TLR4, TLR7, TLR9 and TLR10, which may lead to up-regulation of innate pro-inflammatory response in the cornea.
14.

Chitosan stabilized nasal emulsion delivery system for effective humoral and cellular response against recombinant tetravalent dengue antigen.

Carbohydr Polym; 190: 129-138, 2018 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29628230

RESUMO

Nasal vaccine delivery systems are emerging alternatives to the conventional sub unit vaccine delivery systems owing to their ability to stimulate potent antigen specific humoral and cellular immune responses. Additional virtue of nasal delivery is its close proximity of immune cells to external epithelial layer which is the route of entry to pathogens. Toxicity of emulsion based vaccine delivery systems may be attributed to the presence of high quantities of surfactants used for stabilizing the emulsions. A safer approach would be to reduce physiologically unwanted surfactant burden in the emulsion to the bare limit to necessity. Oleic acid was used as oil phase due to its ability to enhance penetration of system in nasal mucosa. This emulsion was designed with the purpose that it activates the innate (TLR 4) and adaptive immune systems apart from performing its antigen delivery function. Proving the hypothesis, emulsion when immunized along with recombinant tetravalent dengue antigen has elicited a profound antigen specific humoral and cellular response. Antigen cross presenting and sustained release of antigen by emulsion is the key factor in shaping this immune response. Moreover, the dose sparing effect of emulsion has also been proven which has a crucial role in modern day vaccine delivery. This significant humoral and cellular response elicited proves the suitability of this emulsion system for enhancing the protective effect of vaccines against various intracellular pathogens.
15.

Delineating the serotype-specific neutralizing antibody response to a live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine.

Vaccine; 36(18): 2403-2410, 2018 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29602701

RESUMO

The dengue virus (DENV) vaccines that are licensed or in clinical development consist of DENV serotype 1-4 tetravalent formulations given simultaneously and are not acquired sequentially like natural infections. It is unclear what effect this has on development of protective levels of immunity to all four serotypes. Serotype-specific neutralizing antibody (NAb) is considered the most relevant correlate of protection from dengue disease. Here we assessed levels of serotype-specific and cross-reactive NAb in immune sera from 10 subjects vaccinated with a live attenuated tetravalent DENV vaccine developed at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. The majority of subjects NAb responses to DENV-2 and DENV-4 were type-specific, while their NAb responses to DENV-1 and DENV-3 were primarily cross-reactive. Vaccine virus RNAemia has been most frequently detected for DENV-2 and DENV-4 in vaccinated subjects, strongly suggesting that replication is important for eliciting serotype-specific immunity.
17.

Internally Controlled, Multiplex Real-Time Reverse Transcription PCR for Dengue Virus and Yellow Fever Virus Detection.

Am J Trop Med Hyg; 2018 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29611509

RESUMO

The differential diagnosis of dengue virus (DENV) and yellow fever virus (YFV) infections in endemic areas is complicated by nonspecific early clinical manifestations. In this study, we describe an internally controlled, multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCR (rRT-PCR) for the detection of DENV and YFV. The DENV-YFV assay demonstrated specific detection and had a dynamic range of 2.0-8.0 log copies/µL of eluate for each DENV serotype and YFV. Clinical performance was similar to a published pan-DENV assay: 48/48 acute-phase samples from dengue cases were detected in both assays. For YFV detection, mock samples were prepared with nine geographically diverse YFV isolates over a range of concentrations. The DENV-YFV assay detected 62/65 replicates, whereas 54/65 were detected using a reference YFV rRT-PCR. Given the reemergence of DENV and YFV in areas around the world, the DENV-YFV assay should be a useful tool to narrow the differential diagnosis and provide early case detection.
18.

Prolonged persistence of IgM against dengue virus detected by commonly used commercial assays.

BMC Infect Dis; 18(1): 156, 2018 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29609533

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Initial symptoms of dengue fever are non-specific, and thus definite diagnosis requires laboratory confirmation. Detection of IgM against dengue virus (DENV) has become widely used for dengue diagnosis. Understanding the persistence of anti-DENV IgM in subjects after acute infection is essential in order to interpret test results correctly. Although the longevity of anti-DENV IgM has been vehemently investigated in symptomatic children, anti-DENV IgM persistence in adults and in asymptomatically infected people have seldom been reported. METHODS: We prospectively investigated 44 adults with detectable anti-DENV IgM in a serosurvey conducted in the 2015 dengue epidemic in Tainan, Taiwan. Among subjects within the cohort, 17 were classified to be symptomatic and 27 were asymptomatic. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) from Standard Diagnostic (SD) and Focus Diagnostic were used to detect anti-DENV IgM for specimens collected initially, at 6 and 12 months. Regression analyses were used to estimate the duration of anti-DENV IgM fell below the detectable level. Rapid dengue tests from Standard Diagnostics had been widely adopted to detect anti-DENV IgM in Taiwan during the 2015 dengue outbreak. As such, collected specimens were also evaluated with the SD rapid dengue test in parallel. RESULTS: Anti-DENV IgM was detectable in 70.5 and 46.2% of the 44 subjects at 6 months and 12 months by the SD ELISA, respectively, while 13.6 and 7.7%, respectively, by the Focus ELISA. There was no significant difference in anti-DENV IgM detection for the follow-up specimens between subjects with symptomatic and asymptomatic infections. The regression analysis estimated that anti-DENV IgM persistence fell to the undetectable level at 338.3 days (95% CI 279.7-446.9) by SD ELISA, while at 175.7 days (95% CI 121.9-221.1) by Focus ELISA. The detectable frequency of anti-DENV IgM by rapid tests was 86.4%, 68.2 and 35.9% at initial, 6 and 12 months, respectively. CONCLUSION: Anti-DENV IgM was found to persist much longer than previously thought, suggesting a necessity of re-evaluation of the use of anti-DENV IgM for both the diagnosis of dengue and serological surveillance, especially when large outbreaks have occurred in the preceding year.
20.

Longitudinal Analysis of Antibody Cross-Neutralization Following Zika and Dengue Virus Infection in Asia and the Americas.

J Infect Dis; 2018 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29618091

RESUMO

Background: The four dengue virus serotypes (DENV1-4) and Zika virus (ZIKV) are related mosquito-borne flaviviruses of major importance globally. While monoclonal antibodies and plasma from DENV-immune donors can neutralize or enhance ZIKV in vitro and in small animal models, and vice versa, the extent, duration, and significance of cross-reactivity remains unknown, particularly in flavivirus-endemic regions. Methods: We studied neutralizing antibodies to ZIKV and DENV1-4 in longitudinal serologic specimens through 3 years post-infection from people in Latin America and Asia with laboratory-confirmed DENV infections. We also evaluated neutralizing antibodies to ZIKV and DENV1-4 in Zika patients through 6 months post-infection. Results: In Zika patients, the highest neutralizing antibody titers were to ZIKV, with low-level cross-reactivity to DENV1-4 that was greater in DENV-immune individuals. We found in primary and secondary DENV infections, neutralizing antibody titers to ZIKV were markedly lower than to the infecting DENV and heterologous DENV serotypes. Cross-neutralization was greatest in early convalescence, then ZIKV neutralization decreased, remaining at low levels over time. Conclusions: Patterns of antibody cross-neutralization suggest ZIKV lies outside the DENV serocomplex. Neutralizing antibody titers can distinguish ZIKV from DENV infections when all viruses are analyzed simultaneously. These findings have implications for understanding natural immunity and vaccines.
Resultados 1 - 20 de 21.091