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Constructed wetlands and solar-driven disinfection technologies for sustainable wastewater treatment and reclamation in rural India: SWINGS project.

Water Sci Technol; 76(6): 1474-1489, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28953474


SWINGS was a cooperation project between the European Union and India, aiming at implementing state of the art low-cost technologies for the treatment and reuse of domestic wastewater in rural areas of India. The largest wastewater treatment plant consists of a high-rate anaerobic system, followed by vertical and horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands with a treatment area of around 1,900 m and a final step consisting of solar-driven anodic oxidation (AO) and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection units allowing direct reuse of the treated water. The implementation and operation of two pilot plants in north (Aligarh Muslim University, AMU) and central India (Indira Gandhi National Tribal University, IGNTU) are shown in this study. The overall performance of AMU pilot plant during the first 7 months of operation showed organic matter removal efficiencies of 87% total suspended solids, 95% 5-day biological oxygen demand (BOD ) and 90% chemical oxygen demand, while Kjeldahl nitrogen removal reached 89%. The UV disinfection unit produces water for irrigation and toilet flushing with pathogenic indicator bacteria well below WHO guidelines. On the other hand, the AO disinfection unit implemented at IGNTU and operated for almost a year has been shown to produce an effluent of sufficient quality to be reused by the local population for agriculture and irrigation.

Greenlandic water and sanitation-a context oriented analysis of system challenges towards local sustainable development.

Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28849342


Today, as Greenland focuses on more economic and cultural autonomy, the continued development of societal infrastructure systems is vital. At the same time, pressure is put on the systems by a lack of financial resources and locally based professional competences as well as new market-based forms of organization. Against this background, the article discusses the challenges facing Greenland's self-rule in relation to further develop the existing water and wastewater systems so that they can contribute to the sustainable development of Greenland. The article reviews the historical development of the water supply and wastewater system. This leads to an analysis of the sectorisation, which in recent decades has reorganized the Greenlandic infrastructures, and of how this process is influencing local sustainable development. The article discusses the socio-economic and human impacts and points to the need for developing the water and sanitation system to support not only hygiene and health, but also local sustainable development.

Estimation of the removal efficiency of heavy metals and nutrients from ecological drainage ditches treating town sewage during dry and wet seasons.

Environ Monit Assess; 189(9): 434, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28779427


Vegetated drainage ditches (ecological drainage ditches, EDD) are commonly used for the treatment of nutrients, suspended solids, and pesticides, from agricultural lands and aquaculture effluent. However, their effectiveness to remove heavy metals/metalloids (HM/Ms) and fate remains largely unexplored. In addition, there exists some uncertainty concerning the performance of the EDD in treating HM/Ms. This study presents a thorough assessment on the removal efficiencies of HM/Ms and identifies the parameters affecting the HM/Ms removal process in the EDD receiving primary domestic sewage for 13 years. The mean concentrations of the studied HM/Ms in sediments were lower than those reported in the aquatic ecosystems affected by coal-mine drainage and industrial wastewaters. The results also showed that the concentrations of the selected HM/Ms in ditch sediment were generally far higher than the soil background values of Sichuan basin. Concentrations of all the studied HM/Ms and nutrients in water entering the EDD were significantly higher than the effluent. The annual mean removal efficiencies of Ni, Cu, Cr, Zn, Cd, Pb, As, Fe, Al, Mn, N, and P in the ecological drainage ditch were 50.6, 56.1, 63.3, 79.3, 67.5, 80.1, 60.3, 52.6, 19.8, 24.3, 72.0, and 59.7%, respectively. The study also displayed that dissolved oxygen levels at the outlet were significantly (p < 0.001) higher after passing into the EDD system. The pH was kept at neutral or alkaline. Removal of HM/Ms and nutrients was seasonal, generally peaking in the growing season. Sedimentation was the major mechanism removing HM/Ms within the EDD system. EDD was found to possess a favorable influence at mitigating HM/Ms and nutrients in situ and can be successfully utilized to resolve this type of environmental pollution.

Consumer Perceptions of the Safety of Ready-to-Eat Foods in Retail Food Store Settings.

J Food Prot; 80(8): 1364-1377, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28722484


To better understand how consumers perceive food safety risks in retail food store settings, a survey was administered to 1,041 nationally representative participants who evaluated possible food safety risks depicted in selected photographs and self-reported their perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors. Participants were shown 12 photographs taken at retail stores portraying either commonly perceived or actual food safety contributing factors, such as cross-contamination, product and equipment temperatures, worker hygiene, and/or store sanitation practices. Participants were then asked to specifically identify what they saw, comment as to whether what they saw was safe or unsafe, and articulate what actions they would take in response to these situations. In addition to the survey, focus groups were employed to supplement survey findings with qualitative data. Survey respondents identified risk factors for six of nine actual contributing factor photographs >50% of the time: poor produce storage sanitation (86%, n = 899), cross-contamination during meat slicing (72%, n = 750), bare-hand contact of ready-to-eat food in the deli area (67%, n = 698), separation of raw and ready-to-eat food in the seafood case (63%, n = 660), cross-contamination from serving utensils in the deli case (62%, n = 644), and incorrect product storage temperature (51%, n = 528). On a scale of 1 to 5, where 1 was very unsafe and 5 was very safe, a significant difference was found between average risk perception scores for photographs of actual contributing factors (score of ca. 2.5) and scores for photographs of perceived contributing factors (score of ca. 2.0). Themes from the focus groups supported the results of the survey and provided additional insight into consumer food safety risk perceptions. The results of this study inform communication interventions for consumers and retail food safety professionals aimed at improving hazard identification.

Piloting water quality testing coupled with a national socioeconomic survey in Yogyakarta province, Indonesia, towards tracking of Sustainable Development Goal 6.

Int J Hyg Environ Health; 220(7): 1141-1151, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28743592


There remains a pressing need for systematic water quality monitoring strategies to assess drinking water safety and to track progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). This study incorporated water quality testing into an existing national socioeconomic survey in Yogyakarta province, Indonesia; the first such study in Indonesia in terms of SDG tracking. Multivariate regression analysis assessed the association between faecal and nitrate contamination and drinking water sources household drinking water adjusted for wealth, education level, type of water sources and type of sanitation facilities. The survey observed widespread faecal contamination in both sources for drinking water (89.2%, 95%CI: 86.9-91.5%; n=720) and household drinking water (67.1%, 95%CI: 64.1-70.1%; n=917) as measured by Escherichia coli. This was despite widespread improved drinking water source coverage (85.3%) and commonly self-reported boiling practices (82.2%). E.coli concentration levels in household drinking water were associated with wealth, education levels of a household head, and type of water source (i.e. vender water or local sources). Following the proposed SDG definition for Target 6.1 (water) and 6.2 (sanitation), the estimated proportion of households with access to safely managed drinking water and sanitation was 8.5% and 45.5%, respectively in the study areas, indicating substantial difference from improved drinking water (82.2%) and improved sanitation coverage (70.9%) as per the MDGs targets. The greatest contamination and risk factors were found in the poorest households indicating the urgent need for targeted and effective interventions here. There is suggested evidence that sub-surface leaching from on-site sanitation adversely impacts on drinking water sources, which underscores the need for further technical assistance in promoting latrine construction. Urgent action is still needed to strengthen systematic monitoring efforts towards tracking SDG Goal 6.

Enabling the sustainable Faecal Sludge Management service delivery chain-A case study of dense settlements in Kigali, Rwanda.

Int J Hyg Environ Health; 220(6): 960-973, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28596087


The lack of access to basic sanitation is a global concern and alarmingly prevalent in low- and middle- income countries. In the densely populated settlements of these countries, on-site sanitation systems are usually the only feasible option because dwellers there have no sewers in place to connect to. Using on-site sanitation facilities results in an accumulation of faecal sludge which needs to be properly managed to ensure the well-being of the users as well as the surrounding environment. Unfortunately, often the conditions for faecal sludge management (FSM) within dense settlements are adverse and thus hamper sustainable FSM. We use the normative framework of the FSM enabling environment to gather empirical evidence from densely populated settlements of Kigali city in Rwanda to examine current FSM practices and the extent to which these are being influenced and affected by the setting within which they are taking place. The analysis of the study findings confirms that the existing conditions for FSM in these settlements are inadequate. The specific constraints that hinder the achievement of sustainable FSM include limited government focus on the sanitation sector, high turnover of staff in relevant government institutions, pit sludge management is not placed on the sanitation projects agenda, the existing relevant bylaws are not pro-poor oriented, a lack of clear responsibilities, a lack of relevant local professional training opportunities, unaffordability of FSM services and an inhibition to discuss FSM. Drawing on the involved stakeholders' own perceptions and suggestions, we identify possible approaches to overcome the identified constraints and to allow all actors in the FSM chain to contribute effectively to the management of faecal sludge in densely populated low-income urban settlements. Finally, our study also presents a contribution to the theoretical conceptualisation of the enabling environment for sustainable FSM.

Novel Stokesian Metrics that Quantify Collision Efficiency, Floc Strength, and Discrete Settling Behavior.

Water Environ Res; 89(7): 586-597, 2017 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28641670


Novel parameters were developed to predict the effluent quality and settling behavior in clarifiers that cannot conventionally be achieved using either the conventional flux theory or overflow rates. Simple batch experiments based on the critical settling velocity (CSV) selection were used as the basis for the development of three novel parameters: intrinsic settling classes (ISC), threshold of flocculation/flocculation limitation (TOF/α), and floc strength. ISC was proven to accurately (±2%) determine the granule fraction and discrete particle distribution. TOF quantified the minimum solids concentration needed to form large flocs and was directly linked to collision efficiency. In hybrid systems, an exponential fitting on a CSV matrix was proposed to quantify the collision efficiency of flocs (α). Shear studies were conducted to quantify floc strength. The methods were applied to a wide spectrum of sludge types to show the broad applicability and sensitivity of the novel methods.

Sustainable pyrolytic sludge-char preparation on improvement of closed-loop sewage sludge treatment: Characterization and combined in-situ application.

Chemosphere; 184: 1043-1053, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28662548


Aiming at closed-loop sustainable sewage sludge treatment, an optimal and economical pyrolytic temperature was found at 400-450 °C considering its pyrolysis efficiency of 65%, fast cracking of hydrocarbons, proteins and lipids and development of aromatized porous structure. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) tests demonstrated the development of adsorptive functional groups and crystallographic phases of adsorptive minerals. The optimal sludge-char, with a medium specific surface area of 39.6 m g and an iodine number of 327 mgI g , performed low heavy metals lixiviation. The application of sludge-char in raw sewage could remove 30% of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), along with an acetic acid adsorption capacity of 18.0 mg g . The developed mesopore and/or macropore structures, containing rich acidic and basic functional groups, led to good biofilm matrices for enhanced microbial activities and improved autotrophic nitrification in anoxic stage of an A/O reactor through adsorbed extra carbon source, and hence achieved the total nitrogen (TN) removal up to 50.3%. It is demonstrated that the closed-loop sewage sludge treatment that incorporates pyrolytic sludge-char into in-situ biological sewage treatment can be a promising sustainable strategy by further optimization.

Examining the safety of menstrual cups among rural primary school girls in western Kenya: observational studies nested in a randomised controlled feasibility study.

BMJ Open; 7(4): e015429, 2017 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28473520


OBJECTIVE: Examine the safety of menstrual cups against sanitary pads and usual practice in Kenyan schoolgirls. DESIGN: Observational studies nested in a cluster randomised controlled feasibility study. SETTING: 30 primary schools in a health and demographic surveillance system in rural western Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: Menstruating primary schoolgirls aged 14-16 years participating in a menstrual feasibility study. INTERVENTIONS: Insertable menstrual cup, monthly sanitary pads or 'usual practice' (controls). OUTCOME MEASURES: vaginal colonization, growth on sampled used cups, toxic shock syndrome or other adverse health outcomes. RESULTS: Among 604 eligible girls tested, no adverse event or TSS was detected over a median 10.9 months follow-up. prevalence was 10.8%, with no significant difference over intervention time or between groups. Of 65 positives at first test, 49 girls were retested and 10 (20.4%) remained positive. Of these, two (20%) sample isolates tested positive for toxic shock syndrome toxin-1; both girls were provided pads and were clinically healthy. Seven per cent of cups required replacements for loss, damage, dropping in a latrine or a poor fit. Of 30 used cups processed for growth, 13 (37.1%, 95% CI 21.1% to 53.1%) had growth. growth was greatest in newer compared with established users (53%vs22.2%, p=0.12). CONCLUSIONS: Among this feasibility sample, no evidence emerged to indicate menstrual cups are hazardous or cause health harms among rural Kenyan schoolgirls, but large-scale trials and post-marketing surveillance should continue to evaluate cup safety.

Associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for bleeding hepatocellular carcinoma in HBV cirrhosis: a safety strategy.

Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28447055


The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) spontaneous tumor rupture varies between 3% and 26%. For resectable HCC ruptures, emergency hepatectomy or staged hepatectomy after transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) are life-saving procedures, and efficient therapeutic methods. We report a multimodal therapy including TAE, associating liver partition and portal vein ligation (ALPPS) and immunoglobuline infusion for a huge bleeding HCC with portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT) in hepatitis B virus (HBV) cirrhosis. ALPPS first step began with an abdominal toilette due to the massive hemoperitoneum and a portal vein incision at the bifurcation of the right and left portal veins was performed. A freely floating left part of the thrombus was extracted from the left portal vein in order to restore the left portal vein. The right portal vein with complete thrombosis was closed. Liver partition was then performed. The second step was performed without complications. A HCC Edmondson grade 4 (pT3b) and a cirrhotic liver parenchyma were described. Postoperative ascites decompensation was treated and patient was discharged in postoperative day 21. The reported triple strategy allowed us to prolong patient live. A multimodal therapy including TAE, ALPPS and immunoglobuline is a good option for a life treatment in case of huge bleeding hepatocellular carcinoma with PVTT in HBV cirrhosis.

Division of methods for counting helminths' eggs and the problem of efficiency of these methods.

Ann Agric Environ Med; 24(1): 1-7, 2017 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28378963


From the sanitary and epidemiological aspects, information concerning the developmental forms of intestinal parasites, especially the eggs of helminths present in our environment in: water, soil, sandpits, sewage sludge, crops watered with wastewater are very important. The methods described in the relevant literature may be classified in various ways, primarily according to the methodology of the preparation of samples from environmental matrices prepared for analysis, and the sole methods of counting and chambers/instruments used for this purpose. In addition, there is a possibility to perform the classification of the research methods analyzed from the aspect of the method and time of identification of the individuals counted, or the necessity for staining them. Standard methods for identification of helminths' eggs from environmental matrices are usually characterized by low efficiency, i.e. from 30% to approximately 80%. The efficiency of the method applied may be measured in a dual way, either by using the method of internal standard or the 'Split/Spike' method. While measuring simultaneously in an examined object the efficiency of the method and the number of eggs, the 'actual' number of eggs may be calculated by multiplying the obtained value of the discovered eggs of helminths by inverse efficiency.

Profiles and removal efficiency of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by two different types of sewage treatment plants in Hong Kong.

J Environ Sci (China); 53: 196-206, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28372744


Sewage discharge could be a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the coastal waters. Stonecutters Island and Shatin Sewage Treatment Works (SCISTW and STSTW) in Hong Kong, adopted chemically enhanced primary treatment and biological treatment, respectively. This study aimed at (1) determining the removal efficiencies of PAHs, (2) comparing the capabilities in removing PAHs, and (3) characterizing the profile of each individual PAHs, in the two sewage treatment plants (STPs). Quantification of 16 PAHs was conducted by a Gas Chromatography. The concentrations of total PAHs decreased gradually along the treatment processes (from 301±255 and 307±217ng/L to 14.9±12.1 and 63.3±54.1ng/L in STSTW and SCISTW, respectively). It was noted that STSTW was more capable in removing total PAHs than SCISTW with average total removal efficiency 94.4%±4.12% vs. 79.2%±7.48% (p<0.05). The removal of PAHs was probably due to sorption in particular matter, confirmed by the higher distribution coefficient of individual and total PAHs in solid samples (dewatered sludge contained 92.5% and 74.7% of total PAHs in SCISTW and STSTW, respectively) than liquid samples (final effluent-total contained 7.53% and 25.3% of total PAHs in STSTW and SCISTW, respectively). Despite the impressive capability of STSTW and SCISTW in removing PAHs, there was still a considerable amount of total PAHs (1.85 and 39.3kg/year, respectively for the two STPs) being discharged into Hong Kong coastal waters, which would be an environmental concern.

Evaluation of thermal hydrolysis efficiency of mechanically dewatered sewage sludge via rheological measurement.

Water Res; 116: 34-43, 2017 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28292678


In this study, laboratory tests of both low temperature (60-90 °C) and high temperature (120-180 °C) thermal hydrolysis (LTHP and HTHP) were performed on mechanically dewatered high-solid sludges (at total solid of 14.2 wt% and 18.2 wt%) to evaluate the extent of organic solubilization through rheological measurements. The effects of treatment temperature and duration on organic solubilization and viscoelastic behavior of the sludge were comprehensively investigated. The results indicated that the organic solubilization contents including soluble chemical oxygen demand, soluble protein, and soluble polysaccharides increased logarithmically with the treatment time. Protein solubilized considerably faster than polysaccharides during thermal hydrolysis. The rheological curves exhibited the Payne effect in the amplitude sweep oscillation test. The elastic modulus in linear viscoelastic regime decreased logarithmically with treatment time. The viscoelastic behavior of sludge was well modeled by the Kaye-Bernstein-Kearsly-Zapas (KBKZ) model with paralleled Maxwell elements to describe the frequency dependence of elastic modulus and viscous modulus. With respect to the relaxation spectrum, the relaxation modulus first decreased with relaxation time and then increased. The relaxation modulus in each Maxwell element decreased with the treatment temperature and duration. Furthermore, in the HTHP, the influence of treatment temperature on enhancing organic solubilization and decreasing viscoelasticity exceeded the influence of treatment duration. In contrast, the treatment duration played a more important role than temperature in the LTHP. The content of organic matters was linearly related and logarithmically related to the elastic modulus in the LTHP and in the HTHP, respectively. The rheology analyses demonstrated that viscoelastic properties could be used as indicators to estimate the extent of organic matter solubilization in thermal hydrolysis process. The developed viscoelastic model provided insights for future research in numerically simulating the fluid dynamics of sludge.

Long-term stability and nutrient removal efficiency of aerobic granules at low organic loads.

Bioresour Technol; 234: 336-342, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28340438


The feasibility of application of aerobic granular sludge cultivated with high organic loads for biological nutrient removal (BNR) from low-strength wastewater was studied. Granules obtained with high-strength (COD=1400mg/L) wastewater were fed with medium (COD=700mg/L) and then low-strength (COD=400mg/L) wastewater. The granules rapidly acclimated to the medium-strength wastewater. However, feeding with low-strength wastewater reduced the F/M ratio from 0.4 to 0.2gCOD/gVSSd and granules disintegration occurred. Re-granulation was obtained after poor settling biomass was washed out and the F/M ratio reached 0.4gCOD/gVSSd. Disintegration of granules coincided with the decrease in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) content and protein-to-carbohydrate ratio and re-granulation was assisted with the increase in EPS and protein-to-carbohydrate ratio. The results indicated that cultivation of aerobic granules with high organic loads and its implication for BNR treatment of low-strength wastewater while balancing the F/M ratio can be an alternative to reduce start-up period.

Sewage sludge disposal strategies for sustainable development.

Environ Res; 156: 39-46, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28314153


The main objective of the present review is to compare the existing sewage sludge management solutions in terms of their environmental sustainability. The most commonly used strategies, that include treatment and disposal has been favored within the present state-of-art, considering existing legislation (at European and national level), characterization, ecotoxicology, waste management and actual routs used currently in particular European countries. Selected decision making tools, namely End-of-waste criteria and Life Cycle Assessment has been proposed in order to appropriately assess the possible environmental, economic and technical evaluation of different systems. Therefore, some basic criteria for the best suitable option selection has been described, in the circular economy "from waste to resources" sense. The importance of sewage sludge as a valuable source of matter and energy has been appreciated, as well as a potential risk related to the application of those strategies.

Towards sustainable sanitation management: Establishing the costs and willingness to pay for emptying and transporting sludge in rural districts with high rates of access to latrines.

PLoS One; 12(3): e0171735, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28323885


MOTIVATION: Proper management of fecal sludge has significant positive health and environmental externalities. Most research on managing onsite sanitation so far either simulates the costs of, or the welfare effects from, managing sludge in situ in pit latrines. Thus, designing management strategies for onsite rural sanitation is challenging, because the actual costs of transporting sludge for treatment, and sources for financing these transport costs, are not well understood. METHODS: In this paper we calculate the actual cost of sludge management from onsite latrines, and identify the contributions that latrine owners are willing to make to finance the costs. A spreadsheet-based model is used to identify a cost-effective transport option, and to calculate the cost per household. Then a double-bound contingent valuation method is used to elicit from pit-latrine owners their willingness-to-pay to have sludge transported away. This methodology is employed for the case of a rural subdistrict in Bangladesh called Bhaluka, a unit of administration at which sludge management services are being piloted by the Government of Bangladesh. RESULTS: The typical sludge accumulation rate in Bhaluka is calculated at 0.11 liters/person/day and a typical latrine will need to be emptied approximately once every 3 to 4 years. The costs of emptying and transport are high; approximately USD 13 per emptying event (circa 14% of average monthly income); household contributions could cover around 47% of this cost. However, if costs were spread over time, the service would cost USD 4 per year per household, or USD 0.31 per month per household-comparable to current expenditures of rural households on telecommunications. CONCLUSION: This is one of few research papers that brings the costs of waste management together with financing of that cost, to provide evidence for an implementable solution. This framework can be used to identify cost effective sludge management options and private contributions towards that cost in other (context-specific) administrative areas where onsite sanitation is widespread.

Removal of hydrogen sulfide generated during anaerobic treatment of sulfate-laden wastewater using biochar: Evaluation of efficiency and mechanisms.

Bioresour Technol; 234: 115-121, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28319759


Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H S) from biogas was investigated in a biochar column integrated with a bench-scale continuous-stirred tank reactor (CSTR) treating sulfate-laden wastewater. Synthetic wastewater containing sulfate concentrations of 200-2000mg SO /L was used as substrate, and the CSTR was operated at an organic loading rate of 1.5g chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L·day and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 20days. The biochar was able to remove about 98.0 (±1.2)% of H S for the ranges of concentrations from 105-1020ppmv, especially at high moisture content (80-85%). Very high H S adsorption capacity (up to 273.2±1.9mg H S/g) of biochar is expected to enhance the H S oxidation into S and sulfate. These findings bring a potentially novel application of sulfur-rich biochar as a source of sulfur, an essential but often deficient micro-nutrient in soils.

Multiple approaches to assess the safety of artisanal marine food in a tropical estuary.

Environ Monit Assess; 189(3): 125, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28238170


In this study, metal and metalloid concentrations and pathogens were measured in shellfish at different locations in a tropical estuary, including sites impacted by sewage and industry. Oyster, mangrove snails and mud snails did not exceed Australian and New Zealand Food Standards maximum levels for copper, lead or estimated inorganic arsenic at any site although copper concentrations in oysters and mud snails exceeded generally expected levels at some locations. Bacterial community composition in shellfish was species-specific regardless of location and different to the surrounding water and sediment. In the snails Telescopium telescopium, Terebralia palustris and Nerita balteata, some bacterial taxa differed between sites, but not in Saccostrea cucullata oysters. The abundance of potential human pathogens was very low and pathogen abundance or diversity was not associated with site classification, i.e. sewage impact, industry impact and reference.

Fertilisers production from ashes after sewage sludge combustion - A strategy towards sustainable development.

Environ Res; 154: 171-180, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28086102


Sustainable development and circular economy rules force the global fertilizer industry to develop new phosphorous recovery methods from alternative sources. In this paper a phosphorus recovery technology from Polish industrial Sewage Sludge Ashes was investigated (PolFerAsh - Polish Fertilizers form Ash). A wet method with the use of mineral acid and neutralization was proposed. Detailed characteristic of SSA from largest mono-combustion plans were given and compared to raw materials used on the market. The technological factors associated with such materials were discussed. The composition of the extracts was compared to typical industrial phosphoric acid and standard values characterizing suspension fertilizers. The most favorable conditions for selective precipitation of phosphorus compounds were revealed. The fertilizers obtained also meet EU regulations in the case of the newly discussed Cd content. The process was scaled up and a flow mass diagram was defined.

Efficiency of sewage sludge biochar in improving urban soil properties and promoting grass growth.

Chemosphere; 173: 551-556, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28142113


It is meaningful to quickly improve poor urban soil fertility in order to establish the green land vegetation. In this study, a series rates (0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, 20% and 50%, in mass ratio) of biochar derived from municipal sewage sludge was applied into an urban soil and then turf grass was grown in pots. The results showed that biochar amendment induced significant increases in soil total nitrogen, organic carbon, black carbon, and available phosphorus and potassium by more than 1.5, 1.9, 4.5, 5.6 and 0.4 times, respectively. Turf grass dry matter increased proportionally with increasing amount of added biochar (by an average of 74%), due to the improvement in plant mineral nutrition. Biochar amendment largely increased the total amounts of soil heavy metals. However, 43-97% of the heavy metals in the amended soil were concentrated in the residual fraction with low bioavailability. So the accumulation of heavy metals in turf grass aboveground biomass was highly reduced by the addition of biochar. These results indicated that sewage sludge biochar could be recommended in the poor urban raw soil as a soil conditioner at a rate of 50%. However, the environmental risk of heavy metal accumulation in soil amended with sewage sludge biochar should be carefully considered.
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