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Rapid drinking water safety estimation in cities: Piloting a globally scalable method in Cochabamba, Bolivia.

Sci Total Environ; 654: 1132-1145, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30841388


BACKGROUND: Systematically collected and comparable data on drinking water safety at city-scale is currently unavailable, despite the stated importance of water safety monitoring at scale under the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We developed a rapid drinking water quality assessment methodology intended to be replicable across all cities and useful for monitoring towards achieving SDG 6 (Clean Water and Sanitation). METHODS: We collected drinking water samples at the point-of-consumption for basic microbial, physical and chemical water quality analysis and conducted household surveys on drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene access from 80 households in the city of Cochabamba over 1 week. We categorized the household's water service level according to the SDG 6 framework. RESULTS: We estimated an average time requirement of 6.4 person-hours and a consumable cost of US $51 per household (n = 80). In this cross-sectional study, 71% of drinking water samples met World Health Organization (WHO) microbiological safety criteria, 96% met WHO chemical quality criteria, and all met WHO aesthetic quality criteria. However, only 18% of the households were categorized as having safely managed drinking water services. None met the criteria for having safely managed sanitation services; nonetheless, 81% had basic sanitation services and 78% had basic hygiene facilities. CONCLUSIONS: This method can generate basic water safety data for a city at a relatively low cost in terms of person-time and materials, yielding useful information for inter-city analyses. Because 29% of samples did not meet microbiological safety criteria, 22% of the households did not have access to handwashing facilities and none had safe sanitation services, we concluded that Cochabamba did not meet normative SDG 6 targets when surveyed. Our study further suggests that water quality at point-of-use more accurately characterizes drinking water safety than infrastructure type.

Food safety considerations for commercial complementary foods from global operational guidance on infant and young child feeding in emergencies.

Nutr Rev; 2019 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30812032


The use of commercial complementary food (CCF) in humanitarian emergencies is an emerging topic in nutrition policy. Food safety guidance is helpful for the prevention of foodborne illnesses in infants and young children, but whether current global operational guidance on infant and young child feeding in emergencies (IYCF-E) adequately addresses food safety for CCF in humanitarian emergencies is unknown. The aim of this review was to identify and synthesize available food safety guidance on the use of CCF in humanitarian emergencies. A narrative review that included a systematic content analysis and thematic synthesis of global operational guidance on IYCF-E was conducted. Fourteen global guidance documents were selected. Forty-nine excerpts specific to CCF were identified, of which 10 (20%) were rated as relevant to the prevention of foodborne illness. Assessment of inter-rater reliability showed 80% agreement, with a Cohen's kappa coefficient (κ) of 0.52 (moderate agreement). Content was synthesized in 3 themes: donations of CCF, quality assurance and quality control, and water, sanitation, and hygiene principles. Little salient guidance for the safe use of CCF in emergencies was identified. Global operational guidance on IYCF-E should be updated by incorporating food safety considerations for the use of CCF.

Solar powered nanofiltration for drinking water production from fluoride-containing groundwater - A pilot study towards developing a sustainable and low-cost treatment plant.

J Environ Manage; 231: 1263-1269, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30602251


The following paper summarizes the findings of a pilot study to develop a simple, low-cost, holistic water concept on fluoride removal from groundwater in rural communities of Tanzania; an ideal representative community for other areas in the world with similar problems. A small photovoltaic powered nanofiltration (NF) pilot plant was installed at a vocational training center in Boma Ng´ombe in northern Tanzania. The groundwater in this region is contaminated with fluoride at very high concentrations of up to 60 mg/L. The pilot plant was equipped with a single membrane module containing a spiral wound 4040 membrane NF90 of Dow Water & Process Solutions and was successfully operated over a nine-month period. The membrane removed more than 98% of fluoride. In fact, the fluoride concentration in the permeate was always less than 1 mg/L, which is in agreement with the WHO recommended standard (1.5 mg/L). Permeate was also used as weekly flush medium, so no chemical cleaning was required. Aside from permeate (drinking water) concentrate was also used for washing and flushing the toilets. In conclusion, the use of solar PV power (2.25 KW ) for approximately 2.5 h per day allowed producing about 240 L/h of permeate on average. Therefore, the sustainability of the process and suitability for the Tanzanian communities was proved.

Safe Embrace: technological innovation for elderly safety in the use of toilets.

Rev Bras Enferm; 71(suppl 6): 2833-2836, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30540063


OBJECTIVE: to describe the development of a device to prevent falling for seniors when using the toilet. METHOD: we sought in literature and in the hospital market for a device to prevent falling, without success. Geriatric nurses, in partnership with the hospital engineering team, elaborated a prototype and, after several analysis, looked for a partner for its production. RESULTS: the device, named "Safe Embrace", installed and tested in an apartment of the Geriatric ward, was positively evaluated by the health team, patients and caregivers. CONCLUSION: for the benefit obtained and considering the safety and privacy during use, Safe Embrace was patented so that other institutions could use it.

Research and development of safety management information system for neonatal bathroom and its clinical application: (A STROBE-compliant article).

Medicine (Baltimore); 97(51): e12345, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30572422


We developed a bathroom safety management information system to decrease adverse nursing events, and observed the application of the self-developed safety management information system in neonatal bathroom.A total of 3482 newborns receiving neonatal bath and rooming in between May 2015 and May 2017, were enrolled in this study. Of the 3482 newborns, 1727 that did not use the safety management information system from May 1, 2015 to May 31, 2016, were considered as control group; and other 1755 that used the safety management information system from June 1, 2016 to May 31, 2017 were entered in observation group. The accident rate of adverse nursing events, the duration to check wristbands, response time of urgency call, quantitative data recording for nursing procedures, and pregnant women's and their families' satisfaction degree were compared between the 2 groups.The management information system possesses 4 functions including personal identification, nursing operation quantification, monitoring alarm and music function, and guidance on specialized knowledge and skills. The accident rate of adverse nursing events was significantly lower in the observation than in the control group (P < .05). The duration to check wristbands and the response time of urgency call were all significantly shorter in the observation group than in the control group (all P < .05). Quantitative data recording was significantly better in the observation than in the control group (P < .05). Satisfaction degree was significantly higher in the observation group (96.47%) than in the control group (89.69%) (P < .05). The wireless transmission information was exact and safe, and the system was sensitive and reliable.The system not only is clinically practical but also can enhance the safety of newborns and improve pregnant women's and their families' satisfaction degree.

To evaluate the efficacy and safety of CartiNovex plus tablet in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

Pak J Pharm Sci; 31(5(Supplementary)): 2033-2040, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30393209


Interminable arthritis issue, for example, osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have in like manner an upsurge of aggravation, and oxidative anxiety, bringing about dynamic histological modifications and incapacitating indications. As of now utilized allopathic prescription (extending from painkiller executioners to natural operators) is intense, yet regularly connected with genuine, even dangerous symptoms. Utilized for centuries in customary herbalism, restorative plants are a promising option, with bring down rate of unfavorable occasions and productivity every now and again tantamount with that of traditional medications. In any case, their instrument of activity is as a rule smooth and additionally indeterminate. Despite the fact that a large number of them have been demonstrated powerful in ponders done in vitro or on creature models, there is a shortage of human clinical proof. This clinical trial was conducted at Liaquat National Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. This was a single blind, placebo control phase II clinical trial. Total 200 patients were enrolled in the study, in which 110 received the CartiNovex plus tablet and 90 received the placebo. The age range of patients was 40 years to above 70 years. The sample paired t-test was applied to evaluate the significant level. Different parameters like pain on sitting or lying, morning stiffness, pain on walking, stiffness in sitting, lying or resting later in the day, getting on/off toilet, light domestic duties (such as tidying room, dusting, cooking), WOMAC score % were tested for both group i.e. CartiNovex plus group and placebo group in all parameters CartiNovex plus show significant improvement in all parameters. CartiNovex plus tablet was very effective in the management of OA and RA. The CartiNovex plus tablet was safe and well tolerated in all patients and side effects are non-significant.

Health and safety of pesticide applicators in a high income agricultural setting: a knowledge, attitude, practice, and toxicity study from North-Eastern Italy.

J Prev Med Hyg; 59(3): E200-E211, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30397676


Background: We assessed knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding pesticide handling and related health problems among pesticide applicators (PAs) from the Autonomous Province of Trento, Italy. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was performed in spring 2016, involving 260 PAs. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with a safer use of pesticides. Results: The mean age of participants was 48.8 ± 13.2 years. 89.2% were males. Use of personal protective equipment (PPE) was diffuse, particularly gloves (92.7%), face mask (91.2%), and post-spraying personal hygiene practices were extensively applied. Overall, 43.5% had experienced pesticide-related symptoms especially in subjects misusing PPE, but also for avoiding hygienic procedures. Knowledge about pesticides was a significant predictor for frequency of symptoms. Conclusions: As a better knowledge of pesticide-related risks was a significant predictor to reduce symptoms, our results stress that improving awareness and promoting safe use of pesticide may improve the health of PAs.

Drinking Water Safety: Role of Hand Hygiene, Sanitation Facility, and Water System in Semi-Urban Areas of India.

Am J Trop Med Hyg; 99(4): 889-898, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30062991


Poor drinking water quality is one of the main causes of acute diarrheal disease in developing countries. The study investigated the relationship between fecal contamination of hands, stored drinking water, and source waters in India. We further evaluated the environmental and behavioral factors associated with recontamination of water between collection and consumption. The bacterial contamination, that is, (log most probable number per two hands), found on mothers' hands (mean = 1.11, standard deviation [SD] = 1.2, = 152) was substantially higher than that on their children younger than 5 years (mean = 0.64, SD = 1.0, and = 152). We found a low level of (< 1 per 100 mL) in the source water samples; however, contamination in stored drinking water was above the recommended guidelines of the World Health Organization. The study also found that on hands was significantly associated with in the stored drinking water ( < 0.001). Moreover, was positively associated with gastrointestinal symptoms (odds ratio 1.42, < 0.05). In the households with elevated levels (> 100 /100 mL) of fecal contamination, we found that 43.5% had unimproved sanitation facilities, poor water handling practices, and higher diarrheal incidences. The water quality deterioration from the source to the point of consumption is significant. This necessitates effective interventions in collection, transport, storage, and extraction practices when hand-water contact is likely to occur. These findings support the role of hands in the contamination of stored drinking water and suggest that clean source water does not guarantee safe water at the point of consumption.

Efficiency of various sewage sludges and their biochars in improving selected soil properties and growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum).

J Environ Manage; 223: 607-613, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29975887


Due to increasing demand of P fertilizers and gradual decrease in P resources, recyclable P is the focus of researchers in recent years. Sewage sludge (SS) is a municipal waste that contains appreciable amounts of P and probably other nutrients. In present study, the effects of various SS and their biochars (450 °C for 2 h) were investigated on soil properties and P uptake in wheat (Triticum aestivum) with and without P fertilizer. The biomass of plants and grain yield were significantly increased with application of SS and their biochars as compared to the control treatment either without or with P application. Moreover, there was significant interaction between treatments and P application for the concentration of K, and P in shoots and roots of wheat. Shoot P concentration was not significantly affected with SS than biochars whereas root P concentration was higher in SS treatments than respective biochars. Higher increase in Olsen's P concentration was observed in populated area sludge applied-soil as compared to disposal sludge and their biochars. Overall, it is observed that SS application increased the wheat yield and P concentrations in plants than control depending upon SS types whereas biochar application decreased the P concentration in roots. Grain yield and P concentration in shoots were not significantly affected for the treatment with P fertilizers than without P. Sewage sludge and their biochars might be a potential source of P but further research is needed to recommend the use of modified SS-biochars as source of available P for crops.

Stampede Prevention Design of Primary School Buildings in China: A Sustainable Built Environment Perspective.

Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30021973


In China, crowd stampede accidents usually take place within crowded areas in middle and primary schools. The crowd stampede risk is particularly related to the architectural design such as the staircase design, the layout of crowded places, obstacles, etc. Through the investigation of building design in several primary schools, the relationship between the sustainable layout of crowded places (e.g., toilets, canteens, playgrounds, staircases) and the crowd stampede risk of students are introduced via agent-based simulations. In particular, different experimental scenarios are conducted on stairs in the primary buildings. The evacuation processes are recorded by video camera and spatial stepping characteristics (e.g., foot clearance, step length, mass center, the distance between the mass center and ankle, and etc.) are extracted from the video. Dynamic steady ability is investigated by adopting the margin of stability, quantified by the instantaneous difference between the edge of the base of support and extrapolated vertical projection of the mass center. Based on the sustainable built environment principles and historical data of students, this paper focuses on an in-depth analysis of the staircase design aiming at preventing the crowd stampede risk.

Study on the effects of catalysts on the immobilization efficiency and mechanism of heavy metals during the microwave pyrolysis of sludge.

Waste Manag; 77: 131-139, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30008402


In order to enhance the immobilization of heavy metals in the bio-char during microwave pyrolysis, the immobilization efficiency and mechanism of heavy metals in the microwave pyrolysis of sludge with different alkaline catalysts were explored. Results showed that the leaching concentrations of heavy metals reduced greatly after pyrolysis, which were lower when catalyzed by CaO than those of Fe O . CaO was more favorable for the immobilization of Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni while Fe O was more favorable for Cd. Different species distributions of heavy metals in the bio-char affected the leaching concentrations. Adding catalyst could significantly reduce the ecological risks of heavy metals in the bio-char, and CaO (RI = 15.17-20.43) had a better performance than Fe O (RI = 16.88-21.79). When catalyzed by CaO, the formation of pores and co-crystal compounds in the bio-char determined the immobilization efficiencies of heavy metals.

Roles of bacterial community in the transformation of dissolved organic matter for the stability and safety of material during sludge composting.

Bioresour Technol; 267: 378-385, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30031276


This study was conducted to assess the roles of bacterial community in the dissolved organic matters (DOM) transformation during sludge composting. The relationship among the bacterial community, organic acids, diverse components of DOM as well as the indexes of the phytotoxin level and stability of materials was analyzed by regression and redundancy analysis. The results showed that there were significant correlations between the parameters for evaluating compost phytotoxicity and maturity including GI, C/N, SUVA , SUVA , E , and A , which led to a new index (PC1) by principal component analysis. PC1 was significantly affected by four components of DOM, acetic and tartaric acids that were correlated with the bacteria community shift, especially seven key bacteria. Based on structural equation modeling, the key bacteria with the ability to degrade tartaric acid exerted more important roles in regulating the transformation of DOM components, which was helpful for the stability and safety of compost.

A comparative study on the efficiency of polar and non-polar solvents in oil sludge recovery using solvent extraction.

Environ Monit Assess; 190(7): 389, 2018 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29892910


Oily sludge is a stable emulsion of water in oil, containing solid particles, oily hydrocarbons, and metals with different compositions, which is greatly hazardous to the environment; as a consequence, they must be removed or recovered. Recovery methods are usually preferable because of the possibility of valuable oily hydrocarbons recovery as well as environmental protection. Liquid extraction is one of the most effective methods of oily sludge recovery. In this research, hydrocarbon recoveries from oily sludge using liquid extraction with methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) and toluene as polar and non-polar solvents have been studied and compared to each other. Different parameters will affect the quality of extraction process, among which the temperature, time, and solvent to sludge ratio are the most important ones. Response surface methodology was used as a method of experimental design to find the optimum conditions for obtaining maximum recovery. Then, the sludge recovery efficiencies under the optimum conditions for MEK and toluene were determined by gas chromatography and compared to each other. The results showed 30.41 and 37.24% hydrocarbon recovery for MEK and toluene respectively. Since the major composition of the sludge consisted of non-polar components, therefore, non-polar solvent (MEK) shows better efficiency. The optimum conditions of the studies were 20 °C, 19 min, and 6.4/4.2 for MEK and 55 °C, 17 min, and 3.6/3.6 for toluene.

The distinctive microbial community improves composting efficiency in a full-scale hyperthermophilic composting plant.

Bioresour Technol; 265: 146-154, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29890439


The application of conventional thermophilic composting (TC) is limited by poor efficiency. Newly-developed hyperthermophilic composting (HTC) is expected to overcome this shortcoming. However, the characterization of microbial communities associated with HTC remains unclear. Here, we compared the performance of HTC and TC in a full-scale sludge composting plant, and found that HTC running at the hyperthermophilic and thermophilic phases for 21 days, led to higher composting efficiency and techno-economic advantages over TC. Results of high-throughput sequencing showed drastic changes in the microbial community during HTC. Thermaceae (35.5-41.7%) was the predominant family in the hyperthermophilic phase, while the thermophilic phase was dominated by both Thermaceae (28.0-53.3%) and Thermoactinomycetaceae (29.9-36.1%). The change of microbial community could be the cause of continuous high temperature in HTC, and thus improve composting efficiency by accelerating the maturation process. This work has provided theoretical and practical guidance for managing sewage sludge by HTC.

The Sustainable Development Goal for Urban Sanitation: Africa's Statistical Tragedy Continues?

J Urban Health; 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29858977


Sanitation delivery in the urban areas of sub-Saharan African countries has been a chronic issue, particularly difficult to tackle. Under the Millennium Development Goals, the sanitation target in urban sub-Saharan Africa was missed by a wide margin and witnessed almost no improvement. After 2 years of review, the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme published a new measure of access to sanitation as a baseline for the Sustainable Development Goals. There are a number of improvements in the new measure. However, despite the improvements, the new measure continues to be characterized by an important flaw: it continues to disregard how shared toilet facilities contribute towards the SDG sanitation target. As a result, the new measure does not indicate whether progress is being made in low-income urban areas where a large number of households rely on shared sanitation; nor does it provide a goal that can be achieved in cities of the poorest countries over the measurement period. But, its most egregious failing is that it directs resources towards investments which will often fail cost/benefit tests. In sum, it is not a surprise that a Working Group recommended that the measure should be changed to include some shared facilities. Following the Working Group's recommendation would have avoided the adverse consequences of continued reliance on a key component of the methodology used for monitoring sanitation improvements under the Millennium Development Goals. The paper discusses the limitations of this methodology in the context of urban sub-Saharan Africa, where current sanitation conditions are seriously lacking, and the significant future urban population growth will add more pressure for the delivery of vital sanitation services.

Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Services in Public Health-Care Facilities in Indonesia: Adoption of World Health Organization/United Nations Children's Fund Service Ladders to National Data Sets for a Sustainable Development Goal Baseline Assessment.

Am J Trop Med Hyg; 99(2): 546-551, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29943724


Provision of basic water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) services in health-care facilities is gaining increased attention, given growing acceptance of its importance to the maternal and newborn quality of care agenda and the universal health coverage framework. Adopting and contextualizing an emerging World Health Organization/United Nations Children's Fund Joint Program Monitoring service ladder approach to national data collected in 2010/2011, we estimated the national coverage of primary health centers (PHCs) ( = 8,831), auxiliary PHCs ( = 22,853), village health posts ( = 28,692), and village maternity clinics ( = 14,396) with basic WASH services in Indonesia as part of a Sustainable Development Goal baseline assessment. One quarter of PHCs did not have access to a combination of basic water and sanitation (WatSan) services (23.6%) with significant regional variation (10.6-59.8%), whereas more than two-third of PHCs (72.0%) lacked handwashing facility with soap in all three locations (general consulting room, immunization room, and delivery room). More than a half of the three lower health service level facility types lacked basic WatSan services. National health facility monitoring systems need to be urgently strengthened for tracking the progress and addressing gaps in basic WASH services in health facilities in Indonesia.

Fatores associados à eficiência na Atenção Básica em saúde, nos municípios brasileiros / Factors associated with efficiency in Primary Health Care, in brazilian municipalities

Saúde debate; 42(117): 382-391, abr.-jun. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-962667


RESUMO Este artigo tem por objetivo identificar os fatores que influenciam a eficiência na aplicação dos recursos destinados à Atenção Básica nos municípios brasileiros. Para isso, utilizou-se o modelo de regressão beta inflacionado, uma vez que a variável dependente apresenta valores no intervalo (0,1]. De acordo com os resultados, o índice Firjan de desenvolvimento municipal na saúde e serviços de saneamento básico são fatores que influenciam positivamente a eficiência média na Atenção Básica de um município. Por outro lado, o gasto per capita de um município, em Atenção Básica, exerce efeito negativo na eficiência média.
ABSTRACT This article aims to identify the factors that influence the efficiency in the application of resources destined to Primary Health Care in brazilian municipalities. To this end, the inflated beta regression model was used, since the dependent variable presents values in the interval (0,1]. According to the results, the Firjan Index of Municipal Development in health and basic sanitation services are factors that positively influence the average efficiency in the Primary Health Care of a municipality. On the other hand, the per capita expenditure of a municipality, in primary care, exerts a negative effect on the average efficiency.
Biblioteca responsável: BR1.1

Effect of air flow rate on development of aerobic granules, biomass activity and nitrification efficiency for treating phenol, thiocyanate and ammonium.

J Environ Manage; 219: 178-188, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29738935


The impact of air flow rate on aerobic granulation was evaluated for treating toxic multiple pollutants; phenol (400 mg L ), thiocyanate (100 mg L ) and ammonia nitrogen (100 mg L ) by using three lab scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) (R1, R2 and R3). Larger granules (2938.67 ±â€¯64.91 µm) with higher biomass concentration (volatile solids of 4.17 ±â€¯0.09 g L ), higher granule settling velocity (55.56 ±â€¯1.36 m h ) and lower sludge volume index (35.25 ±â€¯1.71 mL gTSS ) were observed at optimal air flow rate of 2.5 L min (R2). Confocal laser scanning microscopic images illustrated the extended fluorescence for extracellular polymeric substances in R2. In R2, partial nitrification was achieved. Phenol was completely removed in all the reactors while partial removal of SCN and no nitrification were observed with a decrease (1.5 L min ) and an increase (3.5 L min ) in air flow rates (R1 and R3, respectively). This study provides an experimental contribution to examine the effect of optimal combination of aeration and toxic multiple pollutants, governing characteristics and nitrification efficiency of granules along with SBR performance in an economic way in terms of optimal air supply.

Evaluation of metal removal efficiency and its influence in the physicochemical parameters at two sewage treatment plants.

Environ Monit Assess; 190(5): 263, 2018 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29616342


In sewage treatment plants, physicochemical parameters are highly controlled since treated sewage can be returned to water bodies or reused. In addition, pollutants such as heavy metals also deserve attention due to their potential toxicity. In general, these characteristics of sewage and treated water are evaluated independently, with the support of Brazilian legislation that does not require a routine for the analysis of metals as frequent as for the physicochemical parameters. In this work, 66 samples of raw sewage, treated sewage, and effluents from two treatment plants in the city of Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil, were evaluated to assess the efficiency of the treatment plants in the removal of metals. In addition, the influence of these pollutants on the quantification of physicochemical parameters was evaluated. The quantification of metals was performed using inductively coupled plasma optical spectroscopy (ICP-OES), and Spearman's test was applied to evaluate correlation between physicochemical parameters and metal content. The main metals found in the samples were Ba, Mn, Zn, Cu, Se, Fe, and Al. The results indicate that concentrations of metals in the aquatic environment can significantly affect the physicochemical parameters, since high concentrations of metals can interfere mainly in the pH, chemical oxygen demand, and dissolved oxygen.

Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal 06 in Brazil: the universal access to sanitation as a possible mission.

An Acad Bras Cienc; 90(2): 1337-1367, 2018 Apr-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29668802


Sanitation (which includes national public policies for drinking water, sewage services and waste management) is precarious in Brazil and therefore poses a challenge to a range of actors. Poor sanitation impacts public health, education, the environment, and daily life. Globally, it emits increasing greenhouse gases. Universalization of any major public service appears difficult, if not impossible; however, Brazil's program to universalize access to electricity proves the opposite, as will be shown in this paper. By describing the successful implementation of electricity for everyone, we show that planned public efforts, coordinated with private initiatives and local communities, have worked, and the same can be achieved for the sanitation sector. An overview of all sectors that touch on sanitation and emissions is also provided, highlighting the challenges and possibilities for infrastructure projects.
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