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Selection of sustainable municipal water reuse applications by multi-stakeholders using game theory.

Sci Total Environ; 650(Pt 2): 2512-2526, 2019 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30373046


Globally the trend of water reuse has been increasing. The public perception and government regulations are supportive for reclaimed water use in Canada. Reclaimed water can be used in variety of applications that may have different performance in economic, environmental and social dimensions for various stakeholders, indicating decision on water reuse selection is complex. This research proposes a multi-criteria multi-decision-makers framework combining multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) and game theory for a selection of a sustainable water reuse application. The proposed framework is applied to the City of Penticton, BC, Canada. The evaluation criteria included were environmental: fresh water saving, energy use, and carbon emissions; economic: annualized life cycle cost; and social: government policy, public perception, and human health risk for three stakeholders: municipality, citizens, and farm operators. The game theory is applied to eight water reuse options considering a cooperative game. The result shows that lawn, golf course and public park irrigation and toilet flushing with an equal sharing of municipal benefits between the municipality and citizens is the optimal solution. By using the solution, the municipality can have an additional saving of approximately $35/household/year and the citizens have to spend an additional amount of approximately $100/household/year for dual plumbing of toilet and lawn for reclaimed water use. The additional expenditure for the citizens is within Canada's public willingness to pay an additional charge for reclaimed water use. The scenario analysis shows that the weights of sustainability criteria are important in decision-making. Also, the sensitivity analysis shows that the change in the amount of reclaimed water availability can affect water reuse sustainability performance. The proposed framework can also be used in other applications by changing the number of evaluation criteria and stakeholders as required.

Health and safety of pesticide applicators in a high income agricultural setting: a knowledge, attitude, practice, and toxicity study from North-Eastern Italy.

J Prev Med Hyg; 59(3): E200-E211, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30397676


Background: We assessed knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding pesticide handling and related health problems among pesticide applicators (PAs) from the Autonomous Province of Trento, Italy. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was performed in spring 2016, involving 260 PAs. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with a safer use of pesticides. Results: The mean age of participants was 48.8 ± 13.2 years. 89.2% were males. Use of personal protective equipment (PPE) was diffuse, particularly gloves (92.7%), face mask (91.2%), and post-spraying personal hygiene practices were extensively applied. Overall, 43.5% had experienced pesticide-related symptoms especially in subjects misusing PPE, but also for avoiding hygienic procedures. Knowledge about pesticides was a significant predictor for frequency of symptoms. Conclusions: As a better knowledge of pesticide-related risks was a significant predictor to reduce symptoms, our results stress that improving awareness and promoting safe use of pesticide may improve the health of PAs.

To evaluate the efficacy and safety of CartiNovex plus tablet in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

Pak J Pharm Sci; 31(5(Supplementary)): 2033-2040, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30393209


Interminable arthritis issue, for example, osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have in like manner an upsurge of aggravation, and oxidative anxiety, bringing about dynamic histological modifications and incapacitating indications. As of now utilized allopathic prescription (extending from painkiller executioners to natural operators) is intense, yet regularly connected with genuine, even dangerous symptoms. Utilized for centuries in customary herbalism, restorative plants are a promising option, with bring down rate of unfavorable occasions and productivity every now and again tantamount with that of traditional medications. In any case, their instrument of activity is as a rule smooth and additionally indeterminate. Despite the fact that a large number of them have been demonstrated powerful in ponders done in vitro or on creature models, there is a shortage of human clinical proof. This clinical trial was conducted at Liaquat National Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. This was a single blind, placebo control phase II clinical trial. Total 200 patients were enrolled in the study, in which 110 received the CartiNovex plus tablet and 90 received the placebo. The age range of patients was 40 years to above 70 years. The sample paired t-test was applied to evaluate the significant level. Different parameters like pain on sitting or lying, morning stiffness, pain on walking, stiffness in sitting, lying or resting later in the day, getting on/off toilet, light domestic duties (such as tidying room, dusting, cooking), WOMAC score % were tested for both group i.e. CartiNovex plus group and placebo group in all parameters CartiNovex plus show significant improvement in all parameters. CartiNovex plus tablet was very effective in the management of OA and RA. The CartiNovex plus tablet was safe and well tolerated in all patients and side effects are non-significant.

Drinking Water Safety: Role of Hand Hygiene, Sanitation Facility, and Water System in Semi-Urban Areas of India.

Am J Trop Med Hyg; 99(4): 889-898, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30062991


Poor drinking water quality is one of the main causes of acute diarrheal disease in developing countries. The study investigated the relationship between fecal contamination of hands, stored drinking water, and source waters in India. We further evaluated the environmental and behavioral factors associated with recontamination of water between collection and consumption. The bacterial contamination, that is, (log most probable number per two hands), found on mothers' hands (mean = 1.11, standard deviation [SD] = 1.2, = 152) was substantially higher than that on their children younger than 5 years (mean = 0.64, SD = 1.0, and = 152). We found a low level of (< 1 per 100 mL) in the source water samples; however, contamination in stored drinking water was above the recommended guidelines of the World Health Organization. The study also found that on hands was significantly associated with in the stored drinking water ( < 0.001). Moreover, was positively associated with gastrointestinal symptoms (odds ratio 1.42, < 0.05). In the households with elevated levels (> 100 /100 mL) of fecal contamination, we found that 43.5% had unimproved sanitation facilities, poor water handling practices, and higher diarrheal incidences. The water quality deterioration from the source to the point of consumption is significant. This necessitates effective interventions in collection, transport, storage, and extraction practices when hand-water contact is likely to occur. These findings support the role of hands in the contamination of stored drinking water and suggest that clean source water does not guarantee safe water at the point of consumption.

Stampede Prevention Design of Primary School Buildings in China: A Sustainable Built Environment Perspective.

Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30021973


In China, crowd stampede accidents usually take place within crowded areas in middle and primary schools. The crowd stampede risk is particularly related to the architectural design such as the staircase design, the layout of crowded places, obstacles, etc. Through the investigation of building design in several primary schools, the relationship between the sustainable layout of crowded places (e.g., toilets, canteens, playgrounds, staircases) and the crowd stampede risk of students are introduced via agent-based simulations. In particular, different experimental scenarios are conducted on stairs in the primary buildings. The evacuation processes are recorded by video camera and spatial stepping characteristics (e.g., foot clearance, step length, mass center, the distance between the mass center and ankle, and etc.) are extracted from the video. Dynamic steady ability is investigated by adopting the margin of stability, quantified by the instantaneous difference between the edge of the base of support and extrapolated vertical projection of the mass center. Based on the sustainable built environment principles and historical data of students, this paper focuses on an in-depth analysis of the staircase design aiming at preventing the crowd stampede risk.

Efficiency of various sewage sludges and their biochars in improving selected soil properties and growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum).

J Environ Manage; 223: 607-613, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29975887


Due to increasing demand of P fertilizers and gradual decrease in P resources, recyclable P is the focus of researchers in recent years. Sewage sludge (SS) is a municipal waste that contains appreciable amounts of P and probably other nutrients. In present study, the effects of various SS and their biochars (450 °C for 2 h) were investigated on soil properties and P uptake in wheat (Triticum aestivum) with and without P fertilizer. The biomass of plants and grain yield were significantly increased with application of SS and their biochars as compared to the control treatment either without or with P application. Moreover, there was significant interaction between treatments and P application for the concentration of K, and P in shoots and roots of wheat. Shoot P concentration was not significantly affected with SS than biochars whereas root P concentration was higher in SS treatments than respective biochars. Higher increase in Olsen's P concentration was observed in populated area sludge applied-soil as compared to disposal sludge and their biochars. Overall, it is observed that SS application increased the wheat yield and P concentrations in plants than control depending upon SS types whereas biochar application decreased the P concentration in roots. Grain yield and P concentration in shoots were not significantly affected for the treatment with P fertilizers than without P. Sewage sludge and their biochars might be a potential source of P but further research is needed to recommend the use of modified SS-biochars as source of available P for crops.

Roles of bacterial community in the transformation of dissolved organic matter for the stability and safety of material during sludge composting.

Bioresour Technol; 267: 378-385, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30031276


This study was conducted to assess the roles of bacterial community in the dissolved organic matters (DOM) transformation during sludge composting. The relationship among the bacterial community, organic acids, diverse components of DOM as well as the indexes of the phytotoxin level and stability of materials was analyzed by regression and redundancy analysis. The results showed that there were significant correlations between the parameters for evaluating compost phytotoxicity and maturity including GI, C/N, SUVA , SUVA , E , and A , which led to a new index (PC1) by principal component analysis. PC1 was significantly affected by four components of DOM, acetic and tartaric acids that were correlated with the bacteria community shift, especially seven key bacteria. Based on structural equation modeling, the key bacteria with the ability to degrade tartaric acid exerted more important roles in regulating the transformation of DOM components, which was helpful for the stability and safety of compost.

Study on the effects of catalysts on the immobilization efficiency and mechanism of heavy metals during the microwave pyrolysis of sludge.

Waste Manag; 77: 131-139, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30008402


In order to enhance the immobilization of heavy metals in the bio-char during microwave pyrolysis, the immobilization efficiency and mechanism of heavy metals in the microwave pyrolysis of sludge with different alkaline catalysts were explored. Results showed that the leaching concentrations of heavy metals reduced greatly after pyrolysis, which were lower when catalyzed by CaO than those of Fe O . CaO was more favorable for the immobilization of Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni while Fe O was more favorable for Cd. Different species distributions of heavy metals in the bio-char affected the leaching concentrations. Adding catalyst could significantly reduce the ecological risks of heavy metals in the bio-char, and CaO (RI = 15.17-20.43) had a better performance than Fe O (RI = 16.88-21.79). When catalyzed by CaO, the formation of pores and co-crystal compounds in the bio-char determined the immobilization efficiencies of heavy metals.

The distinctive microbial community improves composting efficiency in a full-scale hyperthermophilic composting plant.

Bioresour Technol; 265: 146-154, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29890439


The application of conventional thermophilic composting (TC) is limited by poor efficiency. Newly-developed hyperthermophilic composting (HTC) is expected to overcome this shortcoming. However, the characterization of microbial communities associated with HTC remains unclear. Here, we compared the performance of HTC and TC in a full-scale sludge composting plant, and found that HTC running at the hyperthermophilic and thermophilic phases for 21 days, led to higher composting efficiency and techno-economic advantages over TC. Results of high-throughput sequencing showed drastic changes in the microbial community during HTC. Thermaceae (35.5-41.7%) was the predominant family in the hyperthermophilic phase, while the thermophilic phase was dominated by both Thermaceae (28.0-53.3%) and Thermoactinomycetaceae (29.9-36.1%). The change of microbial community could be the cause of continuous high temperature in HTC, and thus improve composting efficiency by accelerating the maturation process. This work has provided theoretical and practical guidance for managing sewage sludge by HTC.

Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Services in Public Health-Care Facilities in Indonesia: Adoption of World Health Organization/United Nations Children's Fund Service Ladders to National Data Sets for a Sustainable Development Goal Baseline Assessment.

Am J Trop Med Hyg; 99(2): 546-551, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29943724


Provision of basic water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) services in health-care facilities is gaining increased attention, given growing acceptance of its importance to the maternal and newborn quality of care agenda and the universal health coverage framework. Adopting and contextualizing an emerging World Health Organization/United Nations Children's Fund Joint Program Monitoring service ladder approach to national data collected in 2010/2011, we estimated the national coverage of primary health centers (PHCs) ( = 8,831), auxiliary PHCs ( = 22,853), village health posts ( = 28,692), and village maternity clinics ( = 14,396) with basic WASH services in Indonesia as part of a Sustainable Development Goal baseline assessment. One quarter of PHCs did not have access to a combination of basic water and sanitation (WatSan) services (23.6%) with significant regional variation (10.6-59.8%), whereas more than two-third of PHCs (72.0%) lacked handwashing facility with soap in all three locations (general consulting room, immunization room, and delivery room). More than a half of the three lower health service level facility types lacked basic WatSan services. National health facility monitoring systems need to be urgently strengthened for tracking the progress and addressing gaps in basic WASH services in health facilities in Indonesia.

The Sustainable Development Goal for Urban Sanitation: Africa's Statistical Tragedy Continues?

J Urban Health; 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29858977


Sanitation delivery in the urban areas of sub-Saharan African countries has been a chronic issue, particularly difficult to tackle. Under the Millennium Development Goals, the sanitation target in urban sub-Saharan Africa was missed by a wide margin and witnessed almost no improvement. After 2 years of review, the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme published a new measure of access to sanitation as a baseline for the Sustainable Development Goals. There are a number of improvements in the new measure. However, despite the improvements, the new measure continues to be characterized by an important flaw: it continues to disregard how shared toilet facilities contribute towards the SDG sanitation target. As a result, the new measure does not indicate whether progress is being made in low-income urban areas where a large number of households rely on shared sanitation; nor does it provide a goal that can be achieved in cities of the poorest countries over the measurement period. But, its most egregious failing is that it directs resources towards investments which will often fail cost/benefit tests. In sum, it is not a surprise that a Working Group recommended that the measure should be changed to include some shared facilities. Following the Working Group's recommendation would have avoided the adverse consequences of continued reliance on a key component of the methodology used for monitoring sanitation improvements under the Millennium Development Goals. The paper discusses the limitations of this methodology in the context of urban sub-Saharan Africa, where current sanitation conditions are seriously lacking, and the significant future urban population growth will add more pressure for the delivery of vital sanitation services.

A comparative study on the efficiency of polar and non-polar solvents in oil sludge recovery using solvent extraction.

Environ Monit Assess; 190(7): 389, 2018 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29892910


Oily sludge is a stable emulsion of water in oil, containing solid particles, oily hydrocarbons, and metals with different compositions, which is greatly hazardous to the environment; as a consequence, they must be removed or recovered. Recovery methods are usually preferable because of the possibility of valuable oily hydrocarbons recovery as well as environmental protection. Liquid extraction is one of the most effective methods of oily sludge recovery. In this research, hydrocarbon recoveries from oily sludge using liquid extraction with methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) and toluene as polar and non-polar solvents have been studied and compared to each other. Different parameters will affect the quality of extraction process, among which the temperature, time, and solvent to sludge ratio are the most important ones. Response surface methodology was used as a method of experimental design to find the optimum conditions for obtaining maximum recovery. Then, the sludge recovery efficiencies under the optimum conditions for MEK and toluene were determined by gas chromatography and compared to each other. The results showed 30.41 and 37.24% hydrocarbon recovery for MEK and toluene respectively. Since the major composition of the sludge consisted of non-polar components, therefore, non-polar solvent (MEK) shows better efficiency. The optimum conditions of the studies were 20 °C, 19 min, and 6.4/4.2 for MEK and 55 °C, 17 min, and 3.6/3.6 for toluene.

Fatores associados à eficiência na Atenção Básica em saúde, nos municípios brasileiros / Factors associated with efficiency in Primary Health Care, in brazilian municipalities

Saúde debate; 42(117): 382-391, abr.-jun. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-962667


RESUMO Este artigo tem por objetivo identificar os fatores que influenciam a eficiência na aplicação dos recursos destinados à Atenção Básica nos municípios brasileiros. Para isso, utilizou-se o modelo de regressão beta inflacionado, uma vez que a variável dependente apresenta valores no intervalo (0,1]. De acordo com os resultados, o índice Firjan de desenvolvimento municipal na saúde e serviços de saneamento básico são fatores que influenciam positivamente a eficiência média na Atenção Básica de um município. Por outro lado, o gasto per capita de um município, em Atenção Básica, exerce efeito negativo na eficiência média.
ABSTRACT This article aims to identify the factors that influence the efficiency in the application of resources destined to Primary Health Care in brazilian municipalities. To this end, the inflated beta regression model was used, since the dependent variable presents values in the interval (0,1]. According to the results, the Firjan Index of Municipal Development in health and basic sanitation services are factors that positively influence the average efficiency in the Primary Health Care of a municipality. On the other hand, the per capita expenditure of a municipality, in primary care, exerts a negative effect on the average efficiency.
Biblioteca responsável: BR1.1

Effect of air flow rate on development of aerobic granules, biomass activity and nitrification efficiency for treating phenol, thiocyanate and ammonium.

J Environ Manage; 219: 178-188, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29738935


The impact of air flow rate on aerobic granulation was evaluated for treating toxic multiple pollutants; phenol (400 mg L ), thiocyanate (100 mg L ) and ammonia nitrogen (100 mg L ) by using three lab scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) (R1, R2 and R3). Larger granules (2938.67 ±â€¯64.91 µm) with higher biomass concentration (volatile solids of 4.17 ±â€¯0.09 g L ), higher granule settling velocity (55.56 ±â€¯1.36 m h ) and lower sludge volume index (35.25 ±â€¯1.71 mL gTSS ) were observed at optimal air flow rate of 2.5 L min (R2). Confocal laser scanning microscopic images illustrated the extended fluorescence for extracellular polymeric substances in R2. In R2, partial nitrification was achieved. Phenol was completely removed in all the reactors while partial removal of SCN and no nitrification were observed with a decrease (1.5 L min ) and an increase (3.5 L min ) in air flow rates (R1 and R3, respectively). This study provides an experimental contribution to examine the effect of optimal combination of aeration and toxic multiple pollutants, governing characteristics and nitrification efficiency of granules along with SBR performance in an economic way in terms of optimal air supply.

Consideraciones económicas sobre la salud pública cubana y su relación con la salud universal

Rev Panam Salud Publica; 42, apr. 2018
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-34594


[RESUMEN]. Este trabajo expone, en el contexto de la estrategia de salud universal, algunas consideraciones generales y acciones económicas sobre el financiamiento, la eficiencia y otros desafíos económicos de la salud pública en Cuba. Se revisaron fuentes bibliográficas oficiales del estado cubano hasta 2015. Los análisis de series temporales se ajustaron a precios constantes de 1997 y tasa oficial de cambio: 1 peso cubano = 1 dólar estadounidense. El Sistema Nacional de Salud cubano cuenta con una infraestructura sólida, constituida por una amplia red de instalaciones sanitarias que garantizan la cobertura total, el acceso y la equidad en los servicios de la población con recursos humanos calificados. Se realizó un análisis económico bajo el marco conceptual de la estrategia de salud universal con énfasis en el financiamiento, la eficiencia y los desafíos de la salud pública cubana para mantener el derecho a la salud de sus ciudadanos, la equidad, cobertura y acceso en los servicios que se prestan, incluso la eliminación de las barreras económicas, socioculturales y de género, así como la solidaridad con la población cubana y del mundo. Se concluyó que en Cuba se considera la salud universal como una de sus más valiosas realizaciones, aunque se requiere del análisis más eficiente de fuentes fiables y disponibles, la investigación y aplicación de resultados a la práctica sobre las fortalezas y debilidades del sistema en materia de economía de la salud, actualización y uso de los recursos y tecnologías, así como profundizar en las lecciones aprendidas y enfrentar un conjunto de desafíos.
[ABSTRACT]. This paper presents, in the context of the universal health strategy, some general considerations and economic actions on financing, efficiency and other economic challenges of public health in Cuba. Official bibliographic sources of the Cuban state were revised up to 2015. The analyses of time series were adjusted to constant prices of 1997 and the official exchange rate of 1 Cuban peso = 1 US dollar. The Cuban National Health System has a solid infrastructure, consisting of a wide network of health facilities that guarantee full coverage, access and equity in the services provided to the population through qualified human resources. An economic analysis was carried out under the conceptual framework of the universal health strategy, with an emphasis in financing, efficiency and challenges of the Cuban public health system to maintain the right to health of its citizens, equity, coverage and access to the services provided, including the elimination of economic, sociocultural and gender barriers, as well as solidarity with the Cuban population and the world. It was concluded that in Cuba, universal health is considered one of its most valuable achievements, although it is needed a most efficient analysis of reliable and available sources, research and application of results to practice on the strengths and weaknesses of the system regarding health economics, updating and a better use of resources and technologies, as well as deepening the lessons learned and facing remaining challenges.
[RESUMO]. Este artigo apresenta, no contexto da estratégia da saúde universal, algumas considerações gerais e ações econômicas sobre financiamento, eficiência e outros desafios econômicos da saúde pública em Cuba. As fontes bibliográficas oficiais do estado cubano foram revisadas até 2015. As análises das séries temporais foram ajustadas aos preços constantes de 1997 e à taxa oficial de câmbio 1 peso cubano = 1 dólar norte-americano. O Sistema Nacional de Saúde cubano possui uma sólida infra-estrutura, constituída por uma ampla rede de instalações de saúde que garantem cobertura total, acesso e equidade nos serviços da população com recursos humanos qualificados. Uma análise econômica foi realizada no marco conceitual da estratégia de saúde universal que enfatizou o financiamento, eficiência e desafios da saúde pública cubana para manter o direito à saúde de seus cidadãos, equidade, cobertura e acesso no serviços prestados, eliminação de barreiras econômicas, socioculturais e de gênero; bem como a solidariedade com a população cubana e o mundo. Concluiu-se que, em Cuba, a saúde universal é considerada uma das suas conquistas mais valiosas, embora requer a análise mais eficiente de fontes confiáveis e disponíveis, pesquisa e aplicação de resultados para a prática dos pontos fortes e fracos do sistema em termos de economia da saúde, atualização e uso de recursos e tecnologias, além de aprofundar as lições aprendidas e enfrentando um conjunto de desafios.
Biblioteca responsável: US1.1

Phthalates removal efficiency in different wastewater treatment technology in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

Environ Monit Assess; 190(5): 299, 2018 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29679156


The removal capacity of different wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) technologies adopted in rural areas for phthalate was investigated in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Wastewater samples collected from three selected WWTPs which use activated sludge (AS), trickling filter (TF), and oxidation pond (OP) technology were extracted using the solid-phase extraction method followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The six selected phthalate esters (PAEs) dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and di-n-octyl phthalate (DOP) were detected in all the samples collected from the WWTPs. DBP was the most abundant compound in the influent, effluent, and sludge samples with a maximum detection of 2497 µgL , 24.2 µgL , and 1249 µg/g dW, respectively, followed by DEHP and BBP. There was a relatively high removal capacity achieved by AS in Alice, TF in Berlin, and OP in Bedford with a removal efficiency that varied between 77 and 99%, 76 and 98%, and 61 and 98%, respectively. A high significant correlation of PAE removal with total suspended solids (TSS) and turbidity suggests that the removal performance proceeded more through adsorption on settling particles and sludge than on biodegradation. However, the concentrations of PAEs detected in the final effluent and sludge samples exceeded acceptable levels allowed internationally for a safe aquatic environment. AS may have exhibited a more stable and better performance across the different seasons; however, pollution source control still deserves a special attention to prevent the risk posed by these micropollutants.

Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal 06 in Brazil: the universal access to sanitation as a possible mission.

An Acad Bras Cienc; 90(2): 1337-1367, 2018 Apr-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29668802


Sanitation (which includes national public policies for drinking water, sewage services and waste management) is precarious in Brazil and therefore poses a challenge to a range of actors. Poor sanitation impacts public health, education, the environment, and daily life. Globally, it emits increasing greenhouse gases. Universalization of any major public service appears difficult, if not impossible; however, Brazil's program to universalize access to electricity proves the opposite, as will be shown in this paper. By describing the successful implementation of electricity for everyone, we show that planned public efforts, coordinated with private initiatives and local communities, have worked, and the same can be achieved for the sanitation sector. An overview of all sectors that touch on sanitation and emissions is also provided, highlighting the challenges and possibilities for infrastructure projects.

Turf soil enhances treatment efficiency and performance of phenolic wastewater in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor.

Chemosphere; 204: 227-234, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29660535


Phenols are industrially generated intermediate chemicals found in wastewaters that are considered a class of environmental priority pollutants. Up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors are used for phenolic wastewater treatment and exhibit high volume loading capability, favorable granule settling, and tolerance to impact loads. Use of support materials can promote biological productivity and accelerate start-up period of UASB. In the present study, turf soil was used as a support material in a mesophilic UASB reactor for the removal of phenols in wastewater. During sludge acclimatization (45-96 days), COD and phenols in the treatments were both reduced by 97%, whereas these contents in the controls were decreased by 81% and 75%, respectively. The phenol load threshold for the turf soil UASB reactor was greater (1200 mg/L, the equivalent of COD 3000 mg/L) in comparison with the control UASB reactor (900 mg/L, the equivalent of COD 2250 mg/L) and the turf soil UASB reactor was also more resistant to shock loading. Improved sludge settling, shear resistance, and higher biological activity occurred with the turf soil UASB reactor due to the formation of large granular sludge (0.6 mm or larger) in higher relative percentages. Granular sludge size was further enhanced by the colonization of filamentous bacteria on the irregular surface of the turf soil.

Evaluation of metal removal efficiency and its influence in the physicochemical parameters at two sewage treatment plants.

Environ Monit Assess; 190(5): 263, 2018 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29616342


In sewage treatment plants, physicochemical parameters are highly controlled since treated sewage can be returned to water bodies or reused. In addition, pollutants such as heavy metals also deserve attention due to their potential toxicity. In general, these characteristics of sewage and treated water are evaluated independently, with the support of Brazilian legislation that does not require a routine for the analysis of metals as frequent as for the physicochemical parameters. In this work, 66 samples of raw sewage, treated sewage, and effluents from two treatment plants in the city of Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil, were evaluated to assess the efficiency of the treatment plants in the removal of metals. In addition, the influence of these pollutants on the quantification of physicochemical parameters was evaluated. The quantification of metals was performed using inductively coupled plasma optical spectroscopy (ICP-OES), and Spearman's test was applied to evaluate correlation between physicochemical parameters and metal content. The main metals found in the samples were Ba, Mn, Zn, Cu, Se, Fe, and Al. The results indicate that concentrations of metals in the aquatic environment can significantly affect the physicochemical parameters, since high concentrations of metals can interfere mainly in the pH, chemical oxygen demand, and dissolved oxygen.

Facile One-Pot Synthesis of Sustainable Carboxymethyl Chitosan - Sewage Sludge Biochar for Effective Heavy Metal Chelation and Regeneration.

Bioresour Technol; 262: 22-31, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29689437


In this paper, sewage sludge, a solid waste from wastewater treatment plant, which eagerly requires proper treatment was reused as solid support in the form of sewage sludge biochar, then modified with carboxymethyl chitosan to form a bio-adsorbent. Further, carboxymethyl chitosan coating on sewage sludge biochar improved carboxymethyl chitosan's stability in water. The prepared bio-adsorbent revealed a shorter equilibrium time (<60 min) for Pb(II) adsorption and a superior capacity of 594.17 mg g for Hg(II) adsorption, which are so far the best recorded performance achieved for chitosan based adsorbents. Additionally, the adsorbent was highly selective for heavy metal ions and it also presented a good stability and reusability for industrial applications. These outcomes demonstrate waste valorization through a green, facile and one-pot approach that turns the solid waste of sewage sludge into biochar adsorbent with propitious applications in the elimination of heavy metal ions from wastewater.
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