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Clay mineralogy affects the efficiency of sewage sludge in reducing lead retention of soils.

J Environ Sci (China); 80: 45-57, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952351


Recent studies have shown the feasibility of using of sewage sludge for the remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils. However, there are no researches to check the influence of clay mineralogy on the efficiency of the sewage sludge to remediation of contaminated soils with heavy metals. For this purpose, we use two contrasting soils: Oxisol rich in hematite and gibbsite and Inceptisol rich in kaolinite. Thermal-treated sludge was applied to Pb-contaminated soil samples and incubated for 40 days. The soil samples were submitted to seven sequential extractions: soluble-Pb, exchangeable-Pb, precipitated-Pb, organic matter-Pb, Fe and Mn oxide-Pb, gibbsite and kaolinite-Pb, and residual-Pb. The reduction of soluble Pb forms by thermal sludge application was more pronounced in the Oxisol than in the Inceptisol because of the conversion of soluble-Pb into more stable forms, such as precipitated-Pb and oxides-Pb. For Inceptisol was necessary to apply high rates of thermal sludge to reach a significant reduction in soluble-Pb contents. The addition of humic fractions in the form of thermal sludge increased the concentration of organic matter-Pb. In confined area, the use of sewage sludge to reduce the heavy metals levels in soils must be better considered, mainly in more weathered soils.

Agent-Based Modelling for Simulation-Based Design of Sustainable Faecal Sludge Management Systems.

Int J Environ Res Public Health; 16(7)2019 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30925829


Re-using faecal sludge (FS) to generate value has the potential to contribute towards solving the issue of long term sanitation solutions in growing urban areas across sub-Saharan Africa; however, hitherto, no design tools have been available that are capable of simulating a system involving economic factors, complex social issues and environmental circumstances. We hypothesized that Agent-Based Modelling (ABM), when deployed with appropriate rigour, can provide such a tool. Extensive field work was carried out in a Malawian city, investigating the adoption of Skyloo above-ground composting toilets by households, and the operation of the municipal FS site. 65 semi-structured interviews and 148 household interviews, together with observations, were carried out to characterize these processes, with the data acquired being used to construct two separate ABMs. The Skyloo ABM was run for various scenarios of start-up capital for business and payback of loans against the toilet cost to households. The municipal FS Site ABM was run for different patterns of dumping fee and enforcement structure. The field work demonstrated that there is potential for further expansion of FS reuse, with a market for agricultural application. The Skyloo ABM identified the significance of start-up capital for a business installing the toilet technology; the municipal FS Site ABM showed that existing fees, fines and regulatory structure were insufficient to reduce illegal dumping of FS to any useful degree, but that a monthly permit system would provide enhanced revenue to the city council compared with per-visit charging of disposal companies at the municipal FS site. Whilst each ABM ideally requires some additional data before full application, we have, for the first time, shown that ABM provides a basis for the simulation-based design of FS management systems, including complex social, economic and environmental factors.

Rapid drinking water safety estimation in cities: Piloting a globally scalable method in Cochabamba, Bolivia.

Sci Total Environ; 654: 1132-1145, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30841388


BACKGROUND: Systematically collected and comparable data on drinking water safety at city-scale is currently unavailable, despite the stated importance of water safety monitoring at scale under the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We developed a rapid drinking water quality assessment methodology intended to be replicable across all cities and useful for monitoring towards achieving SDG 6 (Clean Water and Sanitation). METHODS: We collected drinking water samples at the point-of-consumption for basic microbial, physical and chemical water quality analysis and conducted household surveys on drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene access from 80 households in the city of Cochabamba over 1 week. We categorized the household's water service level according to the SDG 6 framework. RESULTS: We estimated an average time requirement of 6.4 person-hours and a consumable cost of US $51 per household (n = 80). In this cross-sectional study, 71% of drinking water samples met World Health Organization (WHO) microbiological safety criteria, 96% met WHO chemical quality criteria, and all met WHO aesthetic quality criteria. However, only 18% of the households were categorized as having safely managed drinking water services. None met the criteria for having safely managed sanitation services; nonetheless, 81% had basic sanitation services and 78% had basic hygiene facilities. CONCLUSIONS: This method can generate basic water safety data for a city at a relatively low cost in terms of person-time and materials, yielding useful information for inter-city analyses. Because 29% of samples did not meet microbiological safety criteria, 22% of the households did not have access to handwashing facilities and none had safe sanitation services, we concluded that Cochabamba did not meet normative SDG 6 targets when surveyed. Our study further suggests that water quality at point-of-use more accurately characterizes drinking water safety than infrastructure type.

Community health extension program of Ethiopia, 2003-2018: successes and challenges toward universal coverage for primary healthcare services.

Global Health; 15(1): 24, 2019 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30914055


BACKGROUND: Ethiopia has been implementing a community health extension program (HEP) since 2003. We aimed to assess the successes and challenges of the HEP over time, and develop a framework that may assist the implementation of the program toward universal primary healthcare services. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and synthesis of the literature on the HEP in Ethiopia between 2003 and 2018. Literature search was accomplished in PubMed, Embase and Google scholar databases. Literature search strategies were developed using medical subject headings (MeSH) and text words related to the aim of the review. We used a three-stage screening process to select the publications. Data extraction was conducted by three reviewers using pre-prepared data extraction form. We conducted an interpretive (not aggregative) synthesis of studies. FINDINGS: The HEP enabled Ethiopia to achieve significant improvements in maternal and child health, communicable diseases, hygiene and sanitation, knowledge and health care seeking. The HEP has been a learning organization that adapts itself to community demands. The program is also dynamic enough to shift tasks between health centers and community. The community has been a key player in the successful implementation of the HEP. In spite of these successes, the program is currently facing challenges that remain to be addressed. These challenges are related to productivity and efficiency of health extension workers (HEWs); working and living conditions of HEWs; capacity of health posts; and, social determinants of health. These require a systemic approach that involves the wider health system, community, and sectors responsible for social determinants of health. We developed a framework that may assist in the implementation of the HEP. CONCLUSION: The HEP has enabled Ethiopia to achieve significant improvements. However, several challenges remain to be addressed. The framework can be utilized to improve community health programs toward universal coverage for primary healthcare services.

Is 2030 too soon for Africa to achieve the water and sanitation sustainable development goal?

Sci Total Environ; 669: 129-139, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30878921


Water-Sanitation-Hygiene (WASH) remains vital for the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, yet many countries have not localised the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), including SDG 6, which focuses on ensuring the availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all. Even in leading African economies such as South Africa, many communities still use the bucket system for sanitation. Using a Composite Index drawn from three indicators whose data were available for 53 of the 54 African countries, it emerged that these states are at various stages of fulfilling the targets set out in SDG 6. The fact that some countries showed declining trends in WASH between 2000 and 2015, is an indication that it will be difficult for Africa to reach the 2030 targets. We recommend that Africa aggressively mobilise resources if it is to attain universal WASH services by 2030, along with other SDG 6-related targets.

Food safety considerations for commercial complementary foods from global operational guidance on infant and young child feeding in emergencies.

Nutr Rev; 2019 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30812032


The use of commercial complementary food (CCF) in humanitarian emergencies is an emerging topic in nutrition policy. Food safety guidance is helpful for the prevention of foodborne illnesses in infants and young children, but whether current global operational guidance on infant and young child feeding in emergencies (IYCF-E) adequately addresses food safety for CCF in humanitarian emergencies is unknown. The aim of this review was to identify and synthesize available food safety guidance on the use of CCF in humanitarian emergencies. A narrative review that included a systematic content analysis and thematic synthesis of global operational guidance on IYCF-E was conducted. Fourteen global guidance documents were selected. Forty-nine excerpts specific to CCF were identified, of which 10 (20%) were rated as relevant to the prevention of foodborne illness. Assessment of inter-rater reliability showed 80% agreement, with a Cohen's kappa coefficient (κ) of 0.52 (moderate agreement). Content was synthesized in 3 themes: donations of CCF, quality assurance and quality control, and water, sanitation, and hygiene principles. Little salient guidance for the safe use of CCF in emergencies was identified. Global operational guidance on IYCF-E should be updated by incorporating food safety considerations for the use of CCF.

How do fungal communities and their interaction with bacterial communities influence dissolved organic matter on the stability and safety of sludge compost?

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int; 26(4): 4141-4146, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30607852


This study was conducted to assess the effect of fungal communities and their interaction with bacterial communities on the dissolved organic matter (DOM) transformation for the stability and safety of sludge composting. The results showed that fungal community had strong shifts in diverse stages of sludge composting along with the changes of temperature. Correlation analysis demonstrated that fungal communities had significant connections with bacterial communities during composting but were not directly related to the indicators of phytotoxicity and maturity. Variance partitioning analysis suggested that the interactions of fungal and bacterial communities had the biggest contribution (49.75%) to composting stability and safety. Based on structural equation modeling, the possible way of fungal community participated in the transformation of DOM components and the formation of humic-like substances of DOM by interacting with bacterial community was proposed, which will provide important information for understanding the biotic interaction in composting and improving composting fermentation process.

Solar powered nanofiltration for drinking water production from fluoride-containing groundwater - A pilot study towards developing a sustainable and low-cost treatment plant.

J Environ Manage; 231: 1263-1269, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30602251


The following paper summarizes the findings of a pilot study to develop a simple, low-cost, holistic water concept on fluoride removal from groundwater in rural communities of Tanzania; an ideal representative community for other areas in the world with similar problems. A small photovoltaic powered nanofiltration (NF) pilot plant was installed at a vocational training center in Boma Ng´ombe in northern Tanzania. The groundwater in this region is contaminated with fluoride at very high concentrations of up to 60 mg/L. The pilot plant was equipped with a single membrane module containing a spiral wound 4040 membrane NF90 of Dow Water & Process Solutions and was successfully operated over a nine-month period. The membrane removed more than 98% of fluoride. In fact, the fluoride concentration in the permeate was always less than 1 mg/L, which is in agreement with the WHO recommended standard (1.5 mg/L). Permeate was also used as weekly flush medium, so no chemical cleaning was required. Aside from permeate (drinking water) concentrate was also used for washing and flushing the toilets. In conclusion, the use of solar PV power (2.25 KW ) for approximately 2.5 h per day allowed producing about 240 L/h of permeate on average. Therefore, the sustainability of the process and suitability for the Tanzanian communities was proved.

Sono-advanced Fenton-like degradation of aromatic amines in textile dyeing sludge: efficiency and mechanisms.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int; 26(8): 7810-7820, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30680685


In this paper, a novel strategy integrating ultrasound (US) with a Fenton-like (zero-valent iron/EDTA/air, ZEA) process was proposed for the removal of the refractory and carcinogenic aromatic amines (AAs) in textile dyeing sludge for the first time. The operating condition was optimized as 1.08 W/cm ultrasonic density, 15 g/L ZVI, and 1.0 mM EDTA, which could reach degradation efficiencies of 51.79% in US, 72.88% in ZEA, and 92.40% in US/ZEA system after 90-min reaction. Quenching experiments showed that electron transfer reactions generated by the iron ligands in ZEA brought about various reactive oxidative species (ROS), in which Fe (IV), O ˙ , and ˙OH dominated the degradation. US induced sludge disintegration by ultrasonic shear, proven by particle size decrease and supernatant organic matter upsurge, which helps ROS contact with those pollutants in the sludge cavities. Besides, US facilitated the iron redox cycle for oxygen activation by promoting the corrosion of ZVI and stripping considerable ferric ions from sludge iron oxides which were verified by SEM, XRF, and XPS. Graphical abstract.

Performance of an ECSB reactor for high-rate anaerobic treatment of cheese industry wastewater: effect of pre-acidification on process efficiency and calcium precipitation.

Water Sci Technol; 78(9): 1893-1900, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30566093


An external circulation sludge bed (ECSB) reactor was studied at full-scale (1,000 m ) during anaerobic treatment of cheese and other dairy products industry wastewater (CWW). The latter was characterized by a high calcium content, therefore the study focused on the potential negative impact that calcium may have in the long-term. The degree of CWW acidification (25 and 40%) on ECSB reactor performance was evaluated over a wide range of organic loading rates from 5 up to 18 kg m d , while process efficiency and calcium precipitation were examined in detail. Independently of the operating conditions, the volatile suspended solids content of the anaerobic granular sludge, as well as its calcium content, remained stable along the ECSB reactor operation, indicating that there was no calcium build up in the biomass. The results of this study demonstrate that the ECSB design seems to be particularly suitable to treat calcium-rich wastewater that is probably due to the fact that in this system CaCO precipitates in the bulk liquid of the external circulation tank and not the biomass present in the main reactor, and that the CaCO crystals are washed-out from it due to the high upflow velocity applied to the system (5 m h ).

Safe Embrace: technological innovation for elderly safety in the use of toilets.

Rev Bras Enferm; 71(suppl 6): 2833-2836, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30540063


OBJECTIVE: to describe the development of a device to prevent falling for seniors when using the toilet. METHOD: we sought in literature and in the hospital market for a device to prevent falling, without success. Geriatric nurses, in partnership with the hospital engineering team, elaborated a prototype and, after several analysis, looked for a partner for its production. RESULTS: the device, named "Safe Embrace", installed and tested in an apartment of the Geriatric ward, was positively evaluated by the health team, patients and caregivers. CONCLUSION: for the benefit obtained and considering the safety and privacy during use, Safe Embrace was patented so that other institutions could use it.

Research and development of safety management information system for neonatal bathroom and its clinical application: (A STROBE-compliant article).

Medicine (Baltimore); 97(51): e12345, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30572422


We developed a bathroom safety management information system to decrease adverse nursing events, and observed the application of the self-developed safety management information system in neonatal bathroom.A total of 3482 newborns receiving neonatal bath and rooming in between May 2015 and May 2017, were enrolled in this study. Of the 3482 newborns, 1727 that did not use the safety management information system from May 1, 2015 to May 31, 2016, were considered as control group; and other 1755 that used the safety management information system from June 1, 2016 to May 31, 2017 were entered in observation group. The accident rate of adverse nursing events, the duration to check wristbands, response time of urgency call, quantitative data recording for nursing procedures, and pregnant women's and their families' satisfaction degree were compared between the 2 groups.The management information system possesses 4 functions including personal identification, nursing operation quantification, monitoring alarm and music function, and guidance on specialized knowledge and skills. The accident rate of adverse nursing events was significantly lower in the observation than in the control group (P < .05). The duration to check wristbands and the response time of urgency call were all significantly shorter in the observation group than in the control group (all P < .05). Quantitative data recording was significantly better in the observation than in the control group (P < .05). Satisfaction degree was significantly higher in the observation group (96.47%) than in the control group (89.69%) (P < .05). The wireless transmission information was exact and safe, and the system was sensitive and reliable.The system not only is clinically practical but also can enhance the safety of newborns and improve pregnant women's and their families' satisfaction degree.

To evaluate the efficacy and safety of CartiNovex plus tablet in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

Pak J Pharm Sci; 31(5(Supplementary)): 2033-2040, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30393209


Interminable arthritis issue, for example, osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have in like manner an upsurge of aggravation, and oxidative anxiety, bringing about dynamic histological modifications and incapacitating indications. As of now utilized allopathic prescription (extending from painkiller executioners to natural operators) is intense, yet regularly connected with genuine, even dangerous symptoms. Utilized for centuries in customary herbalism, restorative plants are a promising option, with bring down rate of unfavorable occasions and productivity every now and again tantamount with that of traditional medications. In any case, their instrument of activity is as a rule smooth and additionally indeterminate. Despite the fact that a large number of them have been demonstrated powerful in ponders done in vitro or on creature models, there is a shortage of human clinical proof. This clinical trial was conducted at Liaquat National Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. This was a single blind, placebo control phase II clinical trial. Total 200 patients were enrolled in the study, in which 110 received the CartiNovex plus tablet and 90 received the placebo. The age range of patients was 40 years to above 70 years. The sample paired t-test was applied to evaluate the significant level. Different parameters like pain on sitting or lying, morning stiffness, pain on walking, stiffness in sitting, lying or resting later in the day, getting on/off toilet, light domestic duties (such as tidying room, dusting, cooking), WOMAC score % were tested for both group i.e. CartiNovex plus group and placebo group in all parameters CartiNovex plus show significant improvement in all parameters. CartiNovex plus tablet was very effective in the management of OA and RA. The CartiNovex plus tablet was safe and well tolerated in all patients and side effects are non-significant.

Health and safety of pesticide applicators in a high income agricultural setting: a knowledge, attitude, practice, and toxicity study from North-Eastern Italy.

J Prev Med Hyg; 59(3): E200-E211, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30397676


Background: We assessed knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding pesticide handling and related health problems among pesticide applicators (PAs) from the Autonomous Province of Trento, Italy. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was performed in spring 2016, involving 260 PAs. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with a safer use of pesticides. Results: The mean age of participants was 48.8 ± 13.2 years. 89.2% were males. Use of personal protective equipment (PPE) was diffuse, particularly gloves (92.7%), face mask (91.2%), and post-spraying personal hygiene practices were extensively applied. Overall, 43.5% had experienced pesticide-related symptoms especially in subjects misusing PPE, but also for avoiding hygienic procedures. Knowledge about pesticides was a significant predictor for frequency of symptoms. Conclusions: As a better knowledge of pesticide-related risks was a significant predictor to reduce symptoms, our results stress that improving awareness and promoting safe use of pesticide may improve the health of PAs.

Drinking Water Safety: Role of Hand Hygiene, Sanitation Facility, and Water System in Semi-Urban Areas of India.

Am J Trop Med Hyg; 99(4): 889-898, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30062991


Poor drinking water quality is one of the main causes of acute diarrheal disease in developing countries. The study investigated the relationship between fecal contamination of hands, stored drinking water, and source waters in India. We further evaluated the environmental and behavioral factors associated with recontamination of water between collection and consumption. The bacterial contamination, that is, (log most probable number per two hands), found on mothers' hands (mean = 1.11, standard deviation [SD] = 1.2, = 152) was substantially higher than that on their children younger than 5 years (mean = 0.64, SD = 1.0, and = 152). We found a low level of (< 1 per 100 mL) in the source water samples; however, contamination in stored drinking water was above the recommended guidelines of the World Health Organization. The study also found that on hands was significantly associated with in the stored drinking water ( < 0.001). Moreover, was positively associated with gastrointestinal symptoms (odds ratio 1.42, < 0.05). In the households with elevated levels (> 100 /100 mL) of fecal contamination, we found that 43.5% had unimproved sanitation facilities, poor water handling practices, and higher diarrheal incidences. The water quality deterioration from the source to the point of consumption is significant. This necessitates effective interventions in collection, transport, storage, and extraction practices when hand-water contact is likely to occur. These findings support the role of hands in the contamination of stored drinking water and suggest that clean source water does not guarantee safe water at the point of consumption.

Efficiency of various sewage sludges and their biochars in improving selected soil properties and growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum).

J Environ Manage; 223: 607-613, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29975887


Due to increasing demand of P fertilizers and gradual decrease in P resources, recyclable P is the focus of researchers in recent years. Sewage sludge (SS) is a municipal waste that contains appreciable amounts of P and probably other nutrients. In present study, the effects of various SS and their biochars (450 °C for 2 h) were investigated on soil properties and P uptake in wheat (Triticum aestivum) with and without P fertilizer. The biomass of plants and grain yield were significantly increased with application of SS and their biochars as compared to the control treatment either without or with P application. Moreover, there was significant interaction between treatments and P application for the concentration of K, and P in shoots and roots of wheat. Shoot P concentration was not significantly affected with SS than biochars whereas root P concentration was higher in SS treatments than respective biochars. Higher increase in Olsen's P concentration was observed in populated area sludge applied-soil as compared to disposal sludge and their biochars. Overall, it is observed that SS application increased the wheat yield and P concentrations in plants than control depending upon SS types whereas biochar application decreased the P concentration in roots. Grain yield and P concentration in shoots were not significantly affected for the treatment with P fertilizers than without P. Sewage sludge and their biochars might be a potential source of P but further research is needed to recommend the use of modified SS-biochars as source of available P for crops.

Roles of bacterial community in the transformation of dissolved organic matter for the stability and safety of material during sludge composting.

Bioresour Technol; 267: 378-385, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30031276


This study was conducted to assess the roles of bacterial community in the dissolved organic matters (DOM) transformation during sludge composting. The relationship among the bacterial community, organic acids, diverse components of DOM as well as the indexes of the phytotoxin level and stability of materials was analyzed by regression and redundancy analysis. The results showed that there were significant correlations between the parameters for evaluating compost phytotoxicity and maturity including GI, C/N, SUVA , SUVA , E , and A , which led to a new index (PC1) by principal component analysis. PC1 was significantly affected by four components of DOM, acetic and tartaric acids that were correlated with the bacteria community shift, especially seven key bacteria. Based on structural equation modeling, the key bacteria with the ability to degrade tartaric acid exerted more important roles in regulating the transformation of DOM components, which was helpful for the stability and safety of compost.

Study on the effects of catalysts on the immobilization efficiency and mechanism of heavy metals during the microwave pyrolysis of sludge.

Waste Manag; 77: 131-139, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30008402


In order to enhance the immobilization of heavy metals in the bio-char during microwave pyrolysis, the immobilization efficiency and mechanism of heavy metals in the microwave pyrolysis of sludge with different alkaline catalysts were explored. Results showed that the leaching concentrations of heavy metals reduced greatly after pyrolysis, which were lower when catalyzed by CaO than those of Fe O . CaO was more favorable for the immobilization of Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni while Fe O was more favorable for Cd. Different species distributions of heavy metals in the bio-char affected the leaching concentrations. Adding catalyst could significantly reduce the ecological risks of heavy metals in the bio-char, and CaO (RI = 15.17-20.43) had a better performance than Fe O (RI = 16.88-21.79). When catalyzed by CaO, the formation of pores and co-crystal compounds in the bio-char determined the immobilization efficiencies of heavy metals.

Stampede Prevention Design of Primary School Buildings in China: A Sustainable Built Environment Perspective.

Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30021973


In China, crowd stampede accidents usually take place within crowded areas in middle and primary schools. The crowd stampede risk is particularly related to the architectural design such as the staircase design, the layout of crowded places, obstacles, etc. Through the investigation of building design in several primary schools, the relationship between the sustainable layout of crowded places (e.g., toilets, canteens, playgrounds, staircases) and the crowd stampede risk of students are introduced via agent-based simulations. In particular, different experimental scenarios are conducted on stairs in the primary buildings. The evacuation processes are recorded by video camera and spatial stepping characteristics (e.g., foot clearance, step length, mass center, the distance between the mass center and ankle, and etc.) are extracted from the video. Dynamic steady ability is investigated by adopting the margin of stability, quantified by the instantaneous difference between the edge of the base of support and extrapolated vertical projection of the mass center. Based on the sustainable built environment principles and historical data of students, this paper focuses on an in-depth analysis of the staircase design aiming at preventing the crowd stampede risk.
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