Your browser doesn't support javascript.

Portal Regional da BVS

Informação e Conhecimento para a Saúde

Home > Pesquisa > (TI:(universal or equitable or equitat$ or adequate or adequado or affordable or sustainab... (648)
Detalhe da pesquisa
Imprimir Exportar

Formato de exportação:



Adicionar mais destinatários

Enviar resultado
Resultados 1 - 20 de 648

Drinking Water Safety: Role of Hand Hygiene, Sanitation Facility, and Water System in Semi-Urban Areas of India.

Am J Trop Med Hyg; 99(4): 889-898, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30062991


Poor drinking water quality is one of the main causes of acute diarrheal disease in developing countries. The study investigated the relationship between fecal contamination of hands, stored drinking water, and source waters in India. We further evaluated the environmental and behavioral factors associated with recontamination of water between collection and consumption. The bacterial contamination, that is, (log most probable number per two hands), found on mothers' hands (mean = 1.11, standard deviation [SD] = 1.2, = 152) was substantially higher than that on their children younger than 5 years (mean = 0.64, SD = 1.0, and = 152). We found a low level of (< 1 per 100 mL) in the source water samples; however, contamination in stored drinking water was above the recommended guidelines of the World Health Organization. The study also found that on hands was significantly associated with in the stored drinking water ( < 0.001). Moreover, was positively associated with gastrointestinal symptoms (odds ratio 1.42, < 0.05). In the households with elevated levels (> 100 /100 mL) of fecal contamination, we found that 43.5% had unimproved sanitation facilities, poor water handling practices, and higher diarrheal incidences. The water quality deterioration from the source to the point of consumption is significant. This necessitates effective interventions in collection, transport, storage, and extraction practices when hand-water contact is likely to occur. These findings support the role of hands in the contamination of stored drinking water and suggest that clean source water does not guarantee safe water at the point of consumption.

Stampede Prevention Design of Primary School Buildings in China: A Sustainable Built Environment Perspective.

Int J Environ Res Public Health; 15(7)2018 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30021973


In China, crowd stampede accidents usually take place within crowded areas in middle and primary schools. The crowd stampede risk is particularly related to the architectural design such as the staircase design, the layout of crowded places, obstacles, etc. Through the investigation of building design in several primary schools, the relationship between the sustainable layout of crowded places (e.g., toilets, canteens, playgrounds, staircases) and the crowd stampede risk of students are introduced via agent-based simulations. In particular, different experimental scenarios are conducted on stairs in the primary buildings. The evacuation processes are recorded by video camera and spatial stepping characteristics (e.g., foot clearance, step length, mass center, the distance between the mass center and ankle, and etc.) are extracted from the video. Dynamic steady ability is investigated by adopting the margin of stability, quantified by the instantaneous difference between the edge of the base of support and extrapolated vertical projection of the mass center. Based on the sustainable built environment principles and historical data of students, this paper focuses on an in-depth analysis of the staircase design aiming at preventing the crowd stampede risk.

Study on the effects of catalysts on the immobilization efficiency and mechanism of heavy metals during the microwave pyrolysis of sludge.

Waste Manag; 77: 131-139, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30008402


In order to enhance the immobilization of heavy metals in the bio-char during microwave pyrolysis, the immobilization efficiency and mechanism of heavy metals in the microwave pyrolysis of sludge with different alkaline catalysts were explored. Results showed that the leaching concentrations of heavy metals reduced greatly after pyrolysis, which were lower when catalyzed by CaO than those of Fe O . CaO was more favorable for the immobilization of Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni while Fe O was more favorable for Cd. Different species distributions of heavy metals in the bio-char affected the leaching concentrations. Adding catalyst could significantly reduce the ecological risks of heavy metals in the bio-char, and CaO (RI = 15.17-20.43) had a better performance than Fe O (RI = 16.88-21.79). When catalyzed by CaO, the formation of pores and co-crystal compounds in the bio-char determined the immobilization efficiencies of heavy metals.

The Sustainable Development Goal for Urban Sanitation: Africa's Statistical Tragedy Continues?

J Urban Health; 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29858977


Sanitation delivery in the urban areas of sub-Saharan African countries has been a chronic issue, particularly difficult to tackle. Under the Millennium Development Goals, the sanitation target in urban sub-Saharan Africa was missed by a wide margin and witnessed almost no improvement. After 2 years of review, the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme published a new measure of access to sanitation as a baseline for the Sustainable Development Goals. There are a number of improvements in the new measure. However, despite the improvements, the new measure continues to be characterized by an important flaw: it continues to disregard how shared toilet facilities contribute towards the SDG sanitation target. As a result, the new measure does not indicate whether progress is being made in low-income urban areas where a large number of households rely on shared sanitation; nor does it provide a goal that can be achieved in cities of the poorest countries over the measurement period. But, its most egregious failing is that it directs resources towards investments which will often fail cost/benefit tests. In sum, it is not a surprise that a Working Group recommended that the measure should be changed to include some shared facilities. Following the Working Group's recommendation would have avoided the adverse consequences of continued reliance on a key component of the methodology used for monitoring sanitation improvements under the Millennium Development Goals. The paper discusses the limitations of this methodology in the context of urban sub-Saharan Africa, where current sanitation conditions are seriously lacking, and the significant future urban population growth will add more pressure for the delivery of vital sanitation services.

A comparative study on the efficiency of polar and non-polar solvents in oil sludge recovery using solvent extraction.

Environ Monit Assess; 190(7): 389, 2018 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29892910


Oily sludge is a stable emulsion of water in oil, containing solid particles, oily hydrocarbons, and metals with different compositions, which is greatly hazardous to the environment; as a consequence, they must be removed or recovered. Recovery methods are usually preferable because of the possibility of valuable oily hydrocarbons recovery as well as environmental protection. Liquid extraction is one of the most effective methods of oily sludge recovery. In this research, hydrocarbon recoveries from oily sludge using liquid extraction with methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) and toluene as polar and non-polar solvents have been studied and compared to each other. Different parameters will affect the quality of extraction process, among which the temperature, time, and solvent to sludge ratio are the most important ones. Response surface methodology was used as a method of experimental design to find the optimum conditions for obtaining maximum recovery. Then, the sludge recovery efficiencies under the optimum conditions for MEK and toluene were determined by gas chromatography and compared to each other. The results showed 30.41 and 37.24% hydrocarbon recovery for MEK and toluene respectively. Since the major composition of the sludge consisted of non-polar components, therefore, non-polar solvent (MEK) shows better efficiency. The optimum conditions of the studies were 20 °C, 19 min, and 6.4/4.2 for MEK and 55 °C, 17 min, and 3.6/3.6 for toluene.

Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Services in Public Health-Care Facilities in Indonesia: Adoption of World Health Organization/United Nations Children's Fund Service Ladders to National Data Sets for a Sustainable Development Goal Baseline Assessment.

Am J Trop Med Hyg; 99(2): 546-551, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29943724


Provision of basic water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) services in health-care facilities is gaining increased attention, given growing acceptance of its importance to the maternal and newborn quality of care agenda and the universal health coverage framework. Adopting and contextualizing an emerging World Health Organization/United Nations Children's Fund Joint Program Monitoring service ladder approach to national data collected in 2010/2011, we estimated the national coverage of primary health centers (PHCs) ( = 8,831), auxiliary PHCs ( = 22,853), village health posts ( = 28,692), and village maternity clinics ( = 14,396) with basic WASH services in Indonesia as part of a Sustainable Development Goal baseline assessment. One quarter of PHCs did not have access to a combination of basic water and sanitation (WatSan) services (23.6%) with significant regional variation (10.6-59.8%), whereas more than two-third of PHCs (72.0%) lacked handwashing facility with soap in all three locations (general consulting room, immunization room, and delivery room). More than a half of the three lower health service level facility types lacked basic WatSan services. National health facility monitoring systems need to be urgently strengthened for tracking the progress and addressing gaps in basic WASH services in health facilities in Indonesia.

Phthalates removal efficiency in different wastewater treatment technology in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

Environ Monit Assess; 190(5): 299, 2018 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29679156


The removal capacity of different wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) technologies adopted in rural areas for phthalate was investigated in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Wastewater samples collected from three selected WWTPs which use activated sludge (AS), trickling filter (TF), and oxidation pond (OP) technology were extracted using the solid-phase extraction method followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The six selected phthalate esters (PAEs) dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and di-n-octyl phthalate (DOP) were detected in all the samples collected from the WWTPs. DBP was the most abundant compound in the influent, effluent, and sludge samples with a maximum detection of 2497 µgL , 24.2 µgL , and 1249 µg/g dW, respectively, followed by DEHP and BBP. There was a relatively high removal capacity achieved by AS in Alice, TF in Berlin, and OP in Bedford with a removal efficiency that varied between 77 and 99%, 76 and 98%, and 61 and 98%, respectively. A high significant correlation of PAE removal with total suspended solids (TSS) and turbidity suggests that the removal performance proceeded more through adsorption on settling particles and sludge than on biodegradation. However, the concentrations of PAEs detected in the final effluent and sludge samples exceeded acceptable levels allowed internationally for a safe aquatic environment. AS may have exhibited a more stable and better performance across the different seasons; however, pollution source control still deserves a special attention to prevent the risk posed by these micropollutants.

Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal 06 in Brazil: the universal access to sanitation as a possible mission.

An Acad Bras Cienc; 90(2): 1337-1367, 2018 Apr-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29668802


Sanitation (which includes national public policies for drinking water, sewage services and waste management) is precarious in Brazil and therefore poses a challenge to a range of actors. Poor sanitation impacts public health, education, the environment, and daily life. Globally, it emits increasing greenhouse gases. Universalization of any major public service appears difficult, if not impossible; however, Brazil's program to universalize access to electricity proves the opposite, as will be shown in this paper. By describing the successful implementation of electricity for everyone, we show that planned public efforts, coordinated with private initiatives and local communities, have worked, and the same can be achieved for the sanitation sector. An overview of all sectors that touch on sanitation and emissions is also provided, highlighting the challenges and possibilities for infrastructure projects.

Turf soil enhances treatment efficiency and performance of phenolic wastewater in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor.

Chemosphere; 204: 227-234, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29660535


Phenols are industrially generated intermediate chemicals found in wastewaters that are considered a class of environmental priority pollutants. Up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors are used for phenolic wastewater treatment and exhibit high volume loading capability, favorable granule settling, and tolerance to impact loads. Use of support materials can promote biological productivity and accelerate start-up period of UASB. In the present study, turf soil was used as a support material in a mesophilic UASB reactor for the removal of phenols in wastewater. During sludge acclimatization (45-96 days), COD and phenols in the treatments were both reduced by 97%, whereas these contents in the controls were decreased by 81% and 75%, respectively. The phenol load threshold for the turf soil UASB reactor was greater (1200 mg/L, the equivalent of COD 3000 mg/L) in comparison with the control UASB reactor (900 mg/L, the equivalent of COD 2250 mg/L) and the turf soil UASB reactor was also more resistant to shock loading. Improved sludge settling, shear resistance, and higher biological activity occurred with the turf soil UASB reactor due to the formation of large granular sludge (0.6 mm or larger) in higher relative percentages. Granular sludge size was further enhanced by the colonization of filamentous bacteria on the irregular surface of the turf soil.

Evaluation of metal removal efficiency and its influence in the physicochemical parameters at two sewage treatment plants.

Environ Monit Assess; 190(5): 263, 2018 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29616342


In sewage treatment plants, physicochemical parameters are highly controlled since treated sewage can be returned to water bodies or reused. In addition, pollutants such as heavy metals also deserve attention due to their potential toxicity. In general, these characteristics of sewage and treated water are evaluated independently, with the support of Brazilian legislation that does not require a routine for the analysis of metals as frequent as for the physicochemical parameters. In this work, 66 samples of raw sewage, treated sewage, and effluents from two treatment plants in the city of Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil, were evaluated to assess the efficiency of the treatment plants in the removal of metals. In addition, the influence of these pollutants on the quantification of physicochemical parameters was evaluated. The quantification of metals was performed using inductively coupled plasma optical spectroscopy (ICP-OES), and Spearman's test was applied to evaluate correlation between physicochemical parameters and metal content. The main metals found in the samples were Ba, Mn, Zn, Cu, Se, Fe, and Al. The results indicate that concentrations of metals in the aquatic environment can significantly affect the physicochemical parameters, since high concentrations of metals can interfere mainly in the pH, chemical oxygen demand, and dissolved oxygen.

Facile One-Pot Synthesis of Sustainable Carboxymethyl Chitosan - Sewage Sludge Biochar for Effective Heavy Metal Chelation and Regeneration.

Bioresour Technol; 262: 22-31, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29689437


In this paper, sewage sludge, a solid waste from wastewater treatment plant, which eagerly requires proper treatment was reused as solid support in the form of sewage sludge biochar, then modified with carboxymethyl chitosan to form a bio-adsorbent. Further, carboxymethyl chitosan coating on sewage sludge biochar improved carboxymethyl chitosan's stability in water. The prepared bio-adsorbent revealed a shorter equilibrium time (<60 min) for Pb(II) adsorption and a superior capacity of 594.17 mg g for Hg(II) adsorption, which are so far the best recorded performance achieved for chitosan based adsorbents. Additionally, the adsorbent was highly selective for heavy metal ions and it also presented a good stability and reusability for industrial applications. These outcomes demonstrate waste valorization through a green, facile and one-pot approach that turns the solid waste of sewage sludge into biochar adsorbent with propitious applications in the elimination of heavy metal ions from wastewater.

Biological minimization of excess sludge in a membrane bioreactor: Effect of plant configuration on sludge production, nutrient removal efficiency and membrane fouling tendency.

Bioresour Technol; 259: 146-155, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29550667


Excess sludge minimization was studied in a MBR with pre-denitrification scheme. Sludge minimization, nitrogen removal performance and membrane fouling tendency were investigated in two configurations, characterized by a different position of the sludge retention reactor (SRR). In particular, the SRR was placed: i) in the return activated sludge line (Anaerobic Side-Stream Reactor - ASSR configuration) and ii) in the mainstream between the anoxic and aerobic reactor (Anaerobic Main-Stream Reactor - AMSR configuration). The achieved results demonstrated that the ASSR enabled a higher excess sludge reduction (74% vs 32%), while achieving lower biological nitrogen removal (BNR) (TN = 63% vs 78%) and membrane fouling tendency (FR = 2.1 ·â€¯10 m d vs 4.0 ·â€¯10 m d ) than the AMSR. It was found that metabolism uncoupling, destruction of EPS and endogenous decay simultaneously occurred in the ASSR. Conversely, selective enrichment of bacteria population with low biomass yield was found the main mechanism affecting sludge minimization in the AMSR.

The role of community participation for sustainable integrated neglected tropical diseases and water, sanitation and hygiene intervention programs: A pilot project in Tanzania.

Soc Sci Med; 202: 28-37, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29501716


Strategies aimed at reducing the prevalence of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in Tanzania including those attributed to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) problems have been largely top-down in nature. They have focused on strengthening the governance of NTD-WASH programs by integrating different vertical disease programs and improving the efficiency of report-generation. In this paper, we argue for community participation as an effective strategy for developing sustainable village health governance. We present the results of a pilot undertaken between November 2015 and April 2016 in which we adopted a mixed methods case study approach to implement an Enhanced Development Governance (EDG) model using existing village governance structures. Our results show that the EDG model was associated with a statistically significant reduction in the prevalence of schistosomiasis and diarrhoea, and has led to an increase in awareness of WASH interventions for sustaining gains in NTD control. We identify five key social processes enacted by the EDG model that have led to improved health benefits related to frequency of meetings and attendance, promotion of health and sanitation awareness, income-generating activities, self-organising capabilities, and interaction between village bodies. These findings hold important implications for conceptualising the role of community participation in sustaining NTD-WASH intervention programs and for sensitising institutional and policy reform.

Anaerobic digestion of thermal pre-treated emulsified slaughterhouse wastes (TESW): Effect of trace element limitation on process efficiency and sludge metabolic properties.

Waste Manag; 76: 357-363, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29477649


Slaughterhouse solid wastes, characterized by a high lipid content, are considered a valuable resource for energy production by means of anaerobic digestion technologies. Aim of this study was to examine the effect of trace element limitation on the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of thermally pre-treated emulsified slaughterhouse wastes (TESW). Under two distinct experimental periods (Period I - low and Period II - high trace element dosage respectively) a CSTR with sludge recirculation was operated at increasing organic loading rate (OLR) from 1.5 to 10 g L d . Under optimum conditions, COD removal was higher than 96%, biogas yield equal to 0.53 L g COD feed and the biogas methane content 77%. Trace element limitation however, resulted in a dramatic decline in process efficiency, with VFA accumulation and events of extreme sludge flotation, despite that the soluble concentration of Ni, Co and Mo were between 12 and 28 µg L . This is indicative of mass transfer limitations caused by lipids adsorption onto the anaerobic biomass.

Determination of Appropriate Service Delivery Level for Quantitative Attributes of Household Toilets in Rural Settlements of India from Users' Perspective.

Environ Manage; 61(4): 637-649, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29330609


Improvement of quality of sanitation services in rural settlements is an important development goal in developing countries including India and accordingly several strategies are adopted which promote the demand and use of household toilets through creating awareness and providing subsidies to poor people for construction of household toilets with service-level standards specified from experts' perspective. In many cases, users are unsatisfied with the quality of toilets constructed using subsidies and the same remain unused. Users' satisfaction depends on their perceptions of service quality of individual attributes and overall service quality of the household toilets, which is an important determinant of sustainability and sustained use of toilets. This study aims to assess and benchmark the appropriate service delivery level for quantitative attributes of rural household toilets based on user perception. The service quality is determined with the help of level of service (LOS) scales developed using successive interval scaling technique, the zone of tolerance (ZOT), and users satisfaction level (USL) which relates service delivery levels with user satisfaction directly. The study finds that the service quality of most of the attributes of household toilets constructed using subsidies is perceived as poor. The results also suggest that most of the users expect to have a toilet with the service level of attributes ranging between LOS A and LOS B.

How immediate and significant is the outcome of training on diversified diets, hygiene and food safety? An effort to mitigate child undernutrition in rural Malawi.

Public Health Nutr; 21(6): 1156-1166, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29338801


OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the impacts of training on nutrition, hygiene and food safety designed by the Nutrition Working Group, Child Survival Collaborations and Resources Group (CORE). DESIGN: Adapted from the 21d Positive Deviance/Hearth model, mothers were trained on the subjects of appropriate complementary feeding, water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) practices, and aflatoxin contamination in food. To assess the impacts on child undernutrition, a randomised controlled trial was implemented on a sample of 179 mothers and their children (<2 years old) in two districts of Malawi, namely Mzimba and Balaka. Settings A 21d intensive learning-by-doing process using the positive deviance approach. SUBJECTS: Malawian children and mothers. RESULTS: Difference-in-difference panel regression analysis revealed that the impacts of the comprehensive training were positive and statistically significant on the Z-scores for wasting and underweight, where the effects increased constantly over time within the 21d time frame. As for stunting, the coefficients were not statistically significant during the 21d programme, although the level of significance started increasing in 2 weeks, indicating that stunting should also be alleviated in a slightly longer time horizon. CONCLUSIONS: The study clearly suggests that comprehensive training immediately guides mothers into improved dietary and hygiene practices, and that improved practices take immediate and progressive effects in ameliorating children's undernutrition.

Enhancing nitrogen removal efficiency in a dyestuff wastewater treatment plant with the IFFAS process: the pilot-scale and full-scale studies.

Water Sci Technol; 77(1-2): 70-78, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29339605


The activated sludge (AS) process is widely applied in dyestuff wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs); however, the nitrogen removal efficiency is relatively low and the effluent does not meet the indirect discharge standards before being discharged into the industrial park's WWTP. Hence it is necessary to upgrade the WWTP with more advanced technologies. Moving bed biofilm processes with suspended carriers in an aerobic tank are promising methods due to enhanced nitrification and denitrification. Herein, a pilot-scale integrated free-floating biofilm and activated sludge (IFFAS) process was employed to investigate the feasibility of enhancing nitrogen removal efficiency at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs). The results showed that the effluent chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonium nitrate (NH -N) and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations of the IFFAS process were significantly lower than those of the AS process, and could meet the indirect discharge standards. PCR-DGGE and FISH results indicated that more nitrifiers and denitrifiers co-existed in the IFFAS system, promoting simultaneous nitrification and denitrification. Based on the pilot results, the IFFAS process was used to upgrade the full-scale AS process, and the effluent COD, NH -N and TN of the IFFAS process were 91-291 mg/L, 10.6-28.7 mg/L and 18.9-48.6 mg/L, stably meeting the indirect discharge standards and demonstrating the advantages of IFFAS in dyestuff wastewater treatment.

Industrial wastewater treatment with a bioelectrochemical process: assessment of depuration efficiency and energy production.

Water Sci Technol; 77(1-2): 134-144, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29339612


Development of renewable energy sources, efficient industrial processes, energy/chemicals recovery from wastes are research issues that are quite contemporary. Bioelectrochemical processes represent an eco-innovative technology for energy and resources recovery from both domestic and industrial wastewaters. The current study was conducted to: (i) assess bioelectrochemical treatability of industrial (dairy) wastewater by microbial fuel cells (MFCs); (ii) determine the effects of the applied organic loading rate (OLR) on MFC performance; (iii) identify factors responsible for reactor energy recovery losses (i.e. overpotentials). For this purpose, an MFC was built and continuously operated for 72 days, during which the anodic chamber was fed with dairy wastewater and the cathodic chamber with an aerated mineral solution. The study demonstrated that industrial effluents from agrifood facilities can be treated by bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) with >85% (average) organic matter removal, recovering power at an observed maximum density of 27 W m . Outcomes were better than in previous (shorter) analogous experiences, and demonstrate that this type of process could be successfully used for dairy wastewater with several advantages.

Optimizing household survey methods to monitor the Sustainable Development Goals targets 6.1 and 6.2 on drinking water, sanitation and hygiene: A mixed-methods field-test in Belize.

PLoS One; 12(12): e0189089, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29216244


BACKGROUND: The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) require household survey programmes such as the UNICEF-supported Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) to enhance data collection to cover new indicators. This study aims to evaluated methods for assessing water quality, water availability, emptying of sanitation facilities, menstrual hygiene management and the acceptability of water quality testing in households which are key to monitoring SDG targets 6.1 and 6.2 on drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) and emerging issues. METHODS: As part of a MICS field test, we interviewed 429 households and 267 women age 15-49 in Stann Creek, Belize in a split-sample experiment. In a concurrent qualitative component, we conducted focus groups with interviewers and cognitive interviews with respondents during and immediately following questionnaire administration in the field to explore their question comprehension and response processes. FINDINGS: About 88% of respondents agreed to water quality testing but also desired test results, given the potential implications for their own health. Escherichia coli was present in 36% of drinking water collected at the source, and in 47% of samples consumed in the household. Both questions on water availability necessitated probing by interviewers. About one quarter of households reported emptying of pit latrines and septic tanks, though one-quarter could not provide an answer to the question. Asking questions on menstrual hygiene was acceptable to respondents, but required some clarification and probing. CONCLUSIONS: In the context of Belize, this study confirmed the feasibility of collecting information on the availability and quality of drinking water, emptying of sanitation facilities and menstrual hygiene in a multi-purpose household survey, indicating specific areas to improve question formulation and field protocols. Improvements have been incorporated into the latest round of MICS surveys which will be a major source of national data for monitoring of SDG targets for drinking water, sanitation and hygiene and emerging issues for WASH sector programming.

Culturally appropriate organization of water and sewerage projects built through public private partnerships.

PLoS One; 12(12): e0188905, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29200432


This paper contributes to the pursuit of socially sustainable water and sanitation infrastructure for all people by discovering statistically robust relationships between Hofstede's dimensions of cross-cultural comparison and the choice of contract award types, project type, and primary revenue sources. This analysis, which represents 973 projects distributed across 24 low- and middle-income nations, uses a World Bank dataset describing high capital cost water and sewerage projects funded through private investment. The results show that cultural dimensions explain variation in the choice of contract award types, project type, and primary revenue sources. These results provide empirical evidence that strategies for water and sewerage project organization are not culturally neutral. The data show, for example, that highly individualistic contexts are more likely to select competitive contract award types and to depend on user fees to provide the primary project revenue stream post-construction. By selecting more locally appropriate ways to organize projects, project stakeholders will be better able to pursue the construction of socially sustainable water and sewerage infrastructure.
Resultados 1 - 20 de 648