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Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate safety for women and their infants during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

AIDS; 31(2): 213-232, 2017 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27831952


Pregnant/lactating women in some sub-Saharan Africa settings are at substantial risk of HIV acquisition and could benefit from preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), but safety data in pregnancy/lactation are limited.


Systematic data review through August 2016.


We reviewed research reports/conference abstracts with maternal/child adverse outcome data in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected pregnant/lactating women receiving TDF alone or in combination with other drugs compared with non-TDF regimens.


In total, 26 articles in HIV-infected and seven in HIV-uninfected women were identified. No statistically significant differences were observed between TDF and comparison non-TDF regimens in pregnancy incidence, stillbirth/pregnancy loss, preterm delivery less than 37 weeks, low birth weight <2500/<1500 g, small for gestational age, birth defects, or infant (>14 days) or maternal mortality. One study reported significantly higher very preterm delivery (<34 weeks) and neonatal mortality with TDF versus non-TDF antiretroviral therapy (ART), but no significant difference between TDF ART and zidovudine/single-dose nevirapine. Most studies report normal infant linear growth; one study showed slightly lower, and one higher 1-year length-for-age z-score in TDF ART-exposed infants. No significant differences were reported in abnormal laboratory values or bone markers between TDF and non-TDF-exposed infants in four studies. Lower maternal bone mineral density was observed at 74 weeks postpartum in breastfeeding women on TDF ART compared with no ART in one study.


Given available safety data, there does not appear to be a safety-related rationale for prohibiting PrEP during pregnancy/lactation or for discontinuing PrEP in HIV-uninfected women receiving PrEP who become pregnant and are at continuing risk of HIV acquisition.