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Key points in evaluating immunogenicity of pandemic influenza vaccines: A lesson from immunogenicity studies of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine.

Vaccine; 35(39): 5303-5308, 2017 Sep 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28784284


Immunogenicity studies on pandemic influenza vaccine are necessary to inform rapid development and implementation of a vaccine during a pandemic. Thus, strategies for immunogenicity assessment are required.


To identify essential factors to consider when evaluating the immunogenicity of pandemic influenza vaccines using the experience in Japan with the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine.


We conducted a search of observational studies using PubMed and IchushiWeb. Search terms included "influenza vaccine AND (immunogenicity OR immune response) AND Japan AND (2009 OR pdm09) NOT review," and was limited to studies conducted in humans.


A total of 33 articles were identified, of which 16 articles met the inclusion criteria. Immunogenicity of the commercially available influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine satisfied the international criteria for influenza vaccine immunogenicity in all study populations. The most remarkable immune response was observed in junior high school students, while the lowest immune response was observed in hematological malignancy patients. Similar to immunogenicity studies on seasonal influenza vaccines, factors such as patient background (e.g., age, underlying condition, pre-vaccination titer, body mass index, etc.) and study procedure (e.g., concurrent measurement of pre- and post-vaccination antibody titer, effects of infection during the study period) may have affected the assessment of immunogenicity to the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine. In addition, prior vaccination with the seasonal influenza vaccine may inhibit antibody induction by the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine.


This review discusses factors and strategies that must be considered and addressed during immunogenicity assessments of pandemic influenza vaccines, which may provide useful information for future influenza pandemics.