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Alcohol Abuse is Associated with Enhanced Pulmonary and Systemic Xanthine Oxidoreductase Activity.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol; : ajplung.00570.2016, 2017 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28839105

Abstract

The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a common and devastating disorder. Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) increase ARDS risk, and worsen outcomes, through mechanisms that may include enhancing pulmonary oxidative stress. Alcohol consumption increases activity of the enzyme xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) that contributes to production of both reactive oxygen species (ROS) and uric acid, a damage-associated molecular pattern. These by-products have the potential to modulate pro-inflammatory pathways such as those involving cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and to activate the nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich-containing family, pyrin-domain containing-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. We sought to determine if pulmonary and systemic XOR activity were altered by AUDs. Bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and blood sampling were performed in otherwise healthy human subjects with AUDs and controls. Uric acid in epithelial lining fluid derived from BAL was substantially higher among individuals with AUDs, and did not normalize after 7 days of abstinence; serum uric acid did not differ across groups. XOR enzyme activity in fresh BAL cells and serum was significantly increased in subjects with AUDs. XOR protein in BAL cells from AUD subjects was increased in parallel with COX-2 expression, and further, mRNA expression of NLRP3 inflammasome components was sustained in LPS-stimulated BAL cells from AUD subjects in conjunction with increased IL-1ß. Our data suggest that AUDs augment pulmonary and systemic XOR activity that may contribute to ROS and uric acid generation, promoting inflammation. Further investigations will be necessary to determine if XOR inhibition can mitigate alcohol-associated pulmonary oxidative stress, diminish inflammation, and improve ARDS outcomes.