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Seroprevalence of transplacentally acquired measles antibodies in HIV-exposed versus HIV-unexposed infants at six months of age.

Indian J Med Res; 145(4): 536-542, 2017 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28862187

Abstract

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Measles infection is reported to be more severe, prolonged and associated with a higher complication rate in children with HIV infection. Reports indicate that infants born to HIV-infected women [HIV exposed infants (HEI)] may be more vulnerable to measles. The World Health Organization recommends measles vaccination starting at six months of age in these infants who may be HIV-infected themselves. However, in India, they are given measles vaccination at nine months of age like all other infants. In this study, the seroprevalence of transplacentally acquired measles antibodies was compared in HEI and unexposed infants (HUnI) at six months of age and the proportion of HEI undergoing seroconversion after immunization with measles vaccine was assessed. METHODS: In this prospective longitudinal study, measles IgG antibodies were estimated in serum of 49 HEI and 50 HUnI aged 6-7 months. Measles vaccine was then administered to HEI. Assessment for measles IgG antibodies was repeated 8-12 wk post-immunization. RESULTS: Measles IgG antibodies were detected in two of 49 (4.1%) HEI and 16 of 50 (32%) HUnI. HEI were 11 times more likely to lack measles antibodies as compared to HUnI (odds ratio=11.05, 95% confidence interval=2.989-40.908). Post-vaccination, seroprevalence of measles antibodies increased to 38.5 per cent (PInterpretation & conclusions: Most HEI lacked measles antibodies at six months age and were, therefore, more vulnerable to measles than HUnI. Seroconversion in response to a single dose of measles vaccine administered at six months age was low in these infants, signifying the need of additional dose(s) of measles/measles-containing vaccine.