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A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial to Assess Use of 2% Lidocaine Irrigation to Prevent Abdominal Surgical Site Infection.

Ostomy Wound Manage; 63(8): 12-21, 2017 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28873062

Abstract

Surgical site infections (SSI) are the third most common nosocomial infection, increasing morbidity and mortality rates of patients as well as their costs of care, but longer-term follow up studies and data are limited. Lidocaine, in addition to being a readily available and accessible local anesthetic, is known to have bacteriostatic properties. A prospective, descriptive, controlled, randomized clinical trial was conducted among patients scheduled to undergo abdominal sur- gery in the general surgical unit of a Mexican hospital. The purpose of the study was to assess the incidence of SSIs in general and to compare the 30-day postoperative infection outcomes of saline irrigation to saline irrigation followed by 2% lidocaine application before skin closure in wounds grade II to IV per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surgical wound classi cation. All patients received systemic antibiotics before surgery. Eighty-four (84) patients (40 men and 44 women; mean age 49.02 ± 19.9 years, range 18-92 years), 39 in the control and 45 in the experimental group, completed the 30-day follow-up without experiencing nonsurgery-related complications. The overall incidence of SSIs (speci cally, seromas and abscesses) was 17.86%; the incidence of abscess formation was 7.14%. The overall incidence of SSIs in the lidocaine group was 8.89% compared to 28.2% in the saline only group (P = .02); the relative risk was 1.8 (P = .02; 95% CI 1.19-2.74) and 0.45 (P = .02; 95% CI 0.19-1.06) in the saline and lidocaine groups, respectively. Hemoglobin and albumin levels were signi cantly lower in patients who did compared to those who did not develop an SSI (P = .02 and .04, respectively). No signi cant SSI rate differences were seen between patients who did and did not have a drain placed. In patients who developed an abscess, Escherichia coli was the most prevalent bacteria and present in 40% of collected uid. While carefully controlled clinical studies are needed, lidocaine appears to be a viable option to decrease the incidence of SSI if applied as irrigation before wound closure in patients undergoing abdominal surgery.