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Evaluation of active ingredients and larvicidal activity of clove and cinnamon essential oils against Anopheles gambiae (sensu lato).

Parasit Vectors; 10(1): 411, 2017 Sep 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28874207

BACKGROUND:

Mosquitoes are well-known vectors of many diseases including malaria and lymphatic filariasis. Uses of synthetic insecticides are associated with high toxicity, resistance, environmental pollution and limited alternative, effective synthetic insecticides. This study was undertaken to evaluate the larvicidal efficacy of clove and cinnamon essential oils against laboratory Anopheles gambiae (sensu stricto) and wild An. arabiensis larvae.

METHODS:

The standard WHO guideline for larvicides evaluation was used, and the GC-MS machine was used for active compounds percentage composition analysis and structures identification. Probit regression analysis was used for LC and LC calculations while a t-test was used to test for significant differences between laboratory-reared and wild larvae populations in each concentration of plant extract.

RESULTS:

Mortality effect of clove and cinnamon essential oils against wild and laboratory-reared larvae had variations indicated by their LC and LC values. The mortality at different concentrations of cinnamon and clove post-exposure for wild and laboratory-reared larvae were dosage-dependent and were higher for cinnamon than for clove essential oils. The mortality effect following exposure to a blend of the two essential oils was higher for blends containing a greater proportion of cinnamon oil. In the chemical analysis of the active ingredients of cinnamon essential oil, the main chemical content was Eugenol, and the rarest was ß-Linalool while for clove essential oil, the main chemical content was Eugenol and the rarest was Bicyclo.

CONCLUSION:

The essential oils showed a larvicidal effect which was concentration-dependent for both laboratory and wild collected larvae. The active ingredient compositions triggered different responses in mortality. Further research in small-scale should be conducted with concentrated extracted compounds.