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[Characteristics of epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of gram-negative bacterial bloodstream infections in children].

Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi; 55(9): 683-688, 2017 Sep 02.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28881515

Abstract

To study the epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of Gram-negative bacterial bloodstream infections in children, and to guide the choice of antimicrobials and the control of nosocomial infection. Clinical data, bacteriology and antimicrobial susceptibility test results were collected retrospectively in hospitalized children who were diagnosed with gram-negative bacterial bloodstream infections in Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University from January, 2010 to December, 2015. A total of 399 cases (253 male and 146 female) were identified. The age ranged from 16 hours to 16 years (median age 10.1 months). The majority of cases were collected from division of neonatology ( =261, 65.4%), followed by 31 cases (7.8%) from pediatric intensive care unit and 29 cases (7.3%) from Gastroenterology Department; 275 cases (68.9%) had underlying diseases, mainly including preterm birth( =172), neonatal respiratory distress syndrome( =67) and newborn asphyxia( =53). Eighty cases had received invasive procedures and 20 had surgical operation; 149 cases (37.3%) were community-acquired and 250 cases (62.7%) were hospital acquired. Fifty cases had complications, among those, 40 cases had septic shock, 32 cases had multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and 7 cases had disseminated intravascular coagulation; 288 cases were cured, 48 improved, 17 gave up treatment and discharged, and 46 died; totally 408 strains were isolated from 399 children, including Enterobacteriaceae (346, 84.8%), non-fermentative Gram-negative bacteria (49, 12.0%) and other gram-negative bacteria (13, 3.2%). The resistance rates of Escherichia coli ( =175) and Klebsiella pneumoniae ( =106) to carbapenems, ß-lactams enzyme and its inhibitors, amikacin and cefoxitin were all lower than 10%. Totally 245 multi-drug resistant strains (60.1%) were isolated, including 225 strains of Enterobacteriaceae and 18 strains of non-fermentative Gram-negative bacteria ( <0.01) . Nine strains of Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae were isolated, which were all sensitive to amikacin and the sensitive rates to fluoroquinolone reached 88.9%. Five strains which were detected sensitive to tigecycline were all sensitive. The proportion of Klebsiella sp in Gram-negative bacteria between 2013-2015 and 2010-2012 were 32.9% and 21.2%, respectively. The resistance rates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae to ß-lactams and its enzyme inhibitors and carbapenems had no significant change. Gram-negative bacterial bloodstream infections occur more frequently in newborns. Most children had combined underlying diseases. Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae are the most common pathogens. ß-Lactams and its enzyme inhibitors and carbapenems are the empirical choice of antimicrobial therapy for severe Enterobacteriaceae bloodstream bacterial infections.