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Pulse pressure amplification and its relationship with age in young, apparently healthy black and white adults: The African-PREDICT study.

Int J Cardiol; 2017 Sep 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28893431

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Pulse pressure amplification (PPA), i.e. the amplification from central arteries to the periphery, is inversely related to arterial stiffness, organ damage and mortality. It is known that arterial stiffness is higher in black than white populations, but it is unclear if this is due to early vascular aging. We therefore investigated whether PPA declines earlier in young normotensive black South Africans, when compared to their white counterparts. METHODS: We included 875 black and white men and women from the African-PREDICT study (55% black, 41% men), aged 20-30years, with no prior diagnosis of chronic disease, screened for normotensive clinic blood pressure (BP). We determined supine central PP (cPP), and supine brachial systolic- and diastolic BP, from which brachial PP (bPP) was calculated. PPA was defined as the ratio of the amplitude of the PP between these distal and proximal locations (bPP/cPP). RESULTS: We found the mean PPA to be lower in black compared to white participants (1.43 vs. 1.46; P=0.013). In black adults PPA declined earlier with increasing age (P-trend<0.001), with a weak trend in whites (P=0.069) after adjustment for sex, socio-economic status, height, heart rate and mean arterial pressure. In multivariable-adjusted regression, we found an independent inverse association between PPA and age only in the black group (ß=-0.18, P=0.002). CONCLUSION: PPA declines earlier with age in normotensive black adults younger than 30years, exemplifying early vascular aging which may predispose black individuals to future cardiovascular outcomes.