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Structure, Function, and Biosynthetic Origin of Octapeptin Antibiotics Active against Extensively Drug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria.

Cell Chem Biol; 25(4): 380-391.e5, 2018 Apr 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29396290
Resistance to the last-resort antibiotic colistin is now widespread and new therapeutics are urgently required. We report the first in toto chemical synthesis and pre-clinical evaluation of octapeptins, a class of lipopeptides structurally related to colistin. The octapeptin biosynthetic cluster consisted of three non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (OctA, OctB, and OctC) that produced an amphiphilic antibiotic, octapeptin C4, which was shown to bind to and depolarize membranes. While active against multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains in vitro, octapeptin C4 displayed poor in vivo efficacy, most likely due to high plasma protein binding. Nuclear magnetic resonance solution structures, empirical structure-activity and structure-toxicity models were used to design synthetic octapeptins active against MDR and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) bacteria. The scaffold was then subtly altered to reduce plasma protein binding, while maintaining activity against MDR and XDR bacteria. In vivo efficacy was demonstrated in a murine bacteremia model with a colistin-resistant P. aeruginosa clinical isolate.