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[Hennekam syndrome: a case report and review of literature].

Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi; 52(3): 192-6, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23856108


To study the clinical characteristics of Hennekam syndrome.


We described a case of long-term iron deficiency anemia, characteristic facial anomalies, growth retardation, and intestinal lymphangiectasia. To our knowledge, this is the first case of Hennekam syndrome reported in China. Meanwhile, relevant literature was also reviewed.


A total of 35 cases of Hennekam syndrome were identified, consisting of 18 males and 17 females (age ranging 0 - 40 years old). Lymphangiectasia, lymphedema, facial anomalies (hypertelorism, flat nasal bridge and flat face) and developmental retardation were the major clinical manifestations of the syndrome. CCBE1 mutation may have played an important role in the pathogenesis of the syndrome. Long-term moderate-to-severe iron deficiency anemia was a distinctive feature of our case. Lymphangiography revealed lymphangiectasia of small intestine and lower limb, as well as thoracic outlet obstruction. Complete elimination of anemia and significant increase of serum albumin level were observed several months after the adhesiolysis procedure of the distal end of thoracic duct. However, anemia and severe hypoalbuminemia relapsed after taking greasy food.


Hennekam syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by defective lymphatic development. Congenital lymphangiectasia should be considered in the patients with unexplained developmental retardation and hypoalbuminemia. Moreover, intestinal lymphangiectasia can be a rare cause of gastrointestinal bleeding.