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Actualización en la fisiopatología de la hidrocefalia crónica del adulto idiopática: ¿nos enfrentamos a otra enfermedad neurodegenerativa? / Actualización en la fisiopatología de la hidrocefalia crónica del adulto idiopática: ¿nos enfrentamos a otra enfermedad neurodegenerativa? / Current concepts on the pathophysiology of idiopathic chronic adult hydrocephalus: Are we facing another neurodegenerative disease?

Neurologia; 33(7): 449-458, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27296497

INTRODUCTION:

Since its description five decades ago, the pathophysiology of idiopathic chronic adult hydrocephalus (iCAH) has been traditionally related to the effect that ventricular dilatation exerts on the structures surrounding the ventricular system. However, altered cerebral blood flow, especially a reduction in the CSF turnover rate, are starting to be considered the main pathophysiological elements of this disease.DEVELOPMENT: Compression of the pyramidal tract, the frontostriatal and frontoreticular circuits, and the paraventricular fibres of the superior longitudinal fasciculus have all been reported in iCAH. At the level of the corpus callosum, gliosis replaces a number of commissural tracts. Cerebral blood flow is also altered, showing a periventricular watershed region limited by the subependymal arteries and the perforating branches of the major arteries of the anterior cerebral circulation. The CSF turnover rate is decreased by 75%, leading to the reduced clearance of neurotoxins and the interruption of neuroendocrine and paracrine signalling in the CSF.

CONCLUSIONS:

iCAH presents as a complex nosological entity, in which the effects of subcortical microangiopathy and reduced CSF turnover play a key role. According to its pathophysiology, it is simpler to think of iCAH more as a neurodegenerative disease, such as Alzheimer disease or Binswanger disease than as the classical concept of hydrocephalus.