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Chirurgické prístupy do pineální krajiny - prehled. / [Surgical approaches to pineal region - review article].

Rozhl Chir; 95(8): 305-11, fall 2016.
Artigo em Tcheco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27650561
INTRODUCTION: The pineal region is a deep-seated part of the brain surrounded by highly eloquent structures. Differential diagnosis of space-occupying lesions in this region encompasses pineal gland cysts, pineal gland tumours, metastases, germ cell tumours, meningiomas, gliomas, hemangioblastomas and neuroectodermal tumours. A treatment strategy is based mainly on tumour anatomical characteristics and histological type. Except germinatous tumours, a surgical excision is the treatment of choice. METHODS: Microsurgical approaches: The microsurgical supracerebellar-infratentorial approach is an essential approach to the pineal region. Despite certain risks, it allows a straightforward and completely extracerebral approach with a minimal cerebellar retraction. The other basic approach is the microsurgical occipital-transtentorial approach that is advantageous in patients with a supratentorial tumour extension or a steep tentorium. The interhemispheric-transcallosal approach and the transcortical-transventricular approach are possible options in selected cases.Endoscopic approaches: The neuroendoscopy provides a minimally invasive method to perform a tumour biopsy and to treat hydrocephalus in one session. Stereotactic biopsy: The stereotactic needle biopsy represents an alternative to the endoscopic biopsy in patients without hydrocephalus and in patients with dorsally located lesions inaccessible from the third ventricle. CONCLUSION: Modern neurosurgery offers a rich variety of surgical approaches to the pineal region. The complexity of space-occupying lesions in this region requires an individualised treatment, a prudent preoperative planning and a meticulous surgical technique.