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Characteristics, Sources and Health Risk Assessment of Trace Metals in PM in Panzhihua, China.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol; 98(1): 76-83, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27872972
Ambient PM air samples were collected at two industrial sites and one urban residential site in the mining city of Panzhihua, China, from April, 2014, to January, 2015. Mass concentrations of ten trace metals (As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Co, V, Mn, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in PM were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The results showed Zn, Pb, Cu, Mn and V were the most abundant elements from the industrial sites. Concentrations for Cd, Cr, Co, Ni, Mn and Cu at industrial sites greatly exceeded the air quality standards of the World Health Organization and the Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection. Principal component analysis indicated that the main sources of the trace metals were steel smelting, fuel combustion, geological and mineral dust. Four different clusters of particles (i.e., mineral, calcium-containing, soot and aluminosilicate) were identified by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Chromium (Cr) was found to present the highest excess cancer risk, implying the potential for carcinogenic health effects in local inhabitants. Manganese (Mn) presented a non-carcinogenic health risk to children and adults, while the other metals were within acceptable limits.