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Chemical fractionation and health risk assessment of particulate matter-bound metals in Pune, India.

Environ Geochem Health; 40(1): 255-270, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27889850
The present study deals with the assessment of sequential extraction of particulate matter (PM)-bound metals and the potential health risks associated with them in a growing metropolitan city (Pune) of India. The average mass concentration of both PM and PM exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Significant seasonal variation in mass concentration was found for both size fractions of PM with higher values in winter season and lower in monsoon. Chemical species of the studied trace metals in PM exhibited significant differences, due to difference in sources of pollution. Metals such as Cd, Pb, and Cr in both size fractions and Zn and Co in fine fraction were more efficiently extracted in mobile fractions showing their mobile nature while Ni and Fe showed reduced mobility. Fe showed the highest concentrations among all the analyzed elements in both coarse (PM ) and fine (PM ) PM, while Cd showed least concentration in both size fractions. PCA identified industrial emissions, vehicular activity, coal combustion, diesel exhaust, waste incineration, electronic waste processing, constructional activities, soil, and road dust as probable contributors responsible for the metallic fraction of PM. All the metals showed varying contamination in PM samples. The contamination was higher for fine particles than coarse ones. The average global contamination factor was found to be 27.0-34.3 in coarse and fine PM, respectively. The hazard quotient (HQ) estimated for Cd, Co, and Ni (both total and easily accessible concentrations) exceeded the safe level (HQ = 1), indicating that these metals would result in non-carcinogenic health effects to the exposed population. The HQ ranged from 9.1 × 10 for Cu (coarse) to 8.3 for Ni (fine) PM. The cancer risk for Cd, Ni, and Cr in both sized PM were much higher than the acceptable limits of USEPA.