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Haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantation using in vitro T cell depleted grafts as salvage therapy in patients with disease relapse after prior allogeneic transplantation.

Ann Hematol; 96(5): 817-827, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28247058
Disease relapse after one or more allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantations (HCT) represents a therapeutic challenge with all options bearing a significant morbidity and mortality. Haploidentical HCT may induce more pronounced anti-leukemic effects and was evaluated at our center in 25 consecutive patients with disease relapse after preceding HCT receiving haploidentical grafts after in vitro T cell depletion. Overall survival at 1 and 2 years was 32 and 14%, respectively. Of note, patients with complete remission (CR) before haploidentical HCT had a very favorable overall survival of 41.7% at 2 years. Cumulative incidence of non-relapse mortality was 36 and 40% at 1 and 2 years, respectively. With a cumulative incidence for relapse of 36 and 45.6% at 1 and 2 years, disease-free survival (DFS) was 28 and 14.4%, respectively. Here also, patients with CR before haploidentical HCT had a favorable DFS of 42% at 2 years. Only very limited acute (11 patients (44%) with a median grade 1) and chronic graft versus host disease (GvHD) (5 patients (11%), limited grade only) was observed. The main complications and causes of death comprised-besides relapse-infections and bleeding complications. Hence, haploidentical HCT can achieve long-term survival comparable to second transplantation with matched or mismatched donors for patients with otherwise deleterious prognosis and should be considered as a treatment option for patients experiencing disease relapse after previous allogeneic HCT.