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Substantial deficiency of free sialic acid in muscles of patients with GNE myopathy and in a mouse model.

PLoS One; 12(3): e0173261, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28267778
GNE myopathy (GNEM), also known as hereditary inclusion body myopathy (HIBM), is a late- onset, progressive myopathy caused by mutations in the GNE gene encoding the enzyme responsible for the first regulated step in the biosynthesis of sialic acid (SA). The disease is characterized by distal muscle weakness in both the lower and upper extremities, with the quadriceps muscle relatively spared until the late stages of disease. To explore the role of SA synthesis in the disease, we conducted a comprehensive and systematic analysis of both free and total SA levels in a large cohort of GNEM patients and a mouse model. A sensitive LC/MS/MS assay was developed to quantify SA in serum and muscle homogenates. Mean serum free SA level was 0.166 µg/mL in patients and 18% lower (p<0.001) than that of age-matched control samples (0.203 µg/mL). In biopsies obtained from patients, mean free SA levels of different muscles ranged from 0.046-0.075 µg/µmol Cr and were markedly lower by 72-85% (p<0.001) than free SA from normal controls. Free SA was shown to constitute a small fraction (3-7%) of the total SA pool in muscle tissue. Differences in mean total SA levels in muscle from patients compared with normal controls were less distinct and more variable between different muscles, suggesting a small subset of sialylation targets could be responsible for the pathogenesis of GNEM. Normal quadriceps had significantly lower levels of free SA (reduced by 39%) and total SA (reduced by 53%) compared to normal gastrocnemius. A lower SA requirement for quadriceps may be linked to the reported quadriceps sparing in GNEM. Analysis of SA levels in GneM743T/M743T mutant mice corroborated the human study results. These results show that serum and muscle free SA is severely reduced in GNEM, which is consistent with the biochemical defect in SA synthesis associated with GNE mutations. These results therefore support the approach of reversing SA depletion as a potential treatment for GNEM patients.