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Evaluations of training programs to improve human resource capacity for HIV, malaria, and TB control: a systematic scoping review of methods applied and outcomes assessed.

Trop Med Health; 45: 16, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28680324


BACKGROUND: Owing to the global health workforce crisis, more funding has been invested in strengthening human resources for health, particularly for HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria control; however, little is known about how these investments in training are evaluated. This paper examines how frequently HIV, malaria, and TB healthcare provider training programs have been scientifically evaluated, synthesizes information on the methods and outcome indicators used, and identifies evidence gaps for future evaluations to address. METHODS: We conducted a systematic scoping review of publications evaluating postgraduate training programs, including in-service training programs, for HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria healthcare providers between 2000 and 2016. Using broad inclusion criteria, we searched three electronic databases and additional gray literature sources. After independent screening by two authors, data about the year, location, methodology, and outcomes assessed was extracted from eligible training program evaluation studies. Training outcomes evaluated were categorized into four levels (reaction, learning, behavior, and results) based on the Kirkpatrick model. FINDINGS: Of 1473 unique publications identified, 87 were eligible for inclusion in the analysis. The number of published articles increased after 2006, with most ( = 57, 66%) conducted in African countries. The majority of training evaluations ( = 44, 51%) were based on HIV with fewer studies focused on malaria ( = 28, 32%) and TB ( = 23, 26%) related training. We found that quantitative survey of trainees was the most commonly used evaluation method ( = 29, 33%) and the most commonly assessed outcomes were knowledge acquisition (learning) of trainees ( = 44, 51%) and organizational impacts of the training programs (38, 44%). Behavior change and trainees' reaction to the training were evaluated less frequently and using less robust methods; costs of training were also rarely assessed. CONCLUSIONS: Our study found that a limited number of robust evaluations had been conducted since 2000, even though the number of training programs has increased over this period to address the human resource shortage for HIV, malaria, and TB control. Specifically, we identified a lack evaluation studies on TB- and malaria-related healthcare provider training and very few studies assessing behavior change of trainees or costs of training. Developing frameworks and standardized evaluation methods may facilitate strengthening of the evidence base to inform policies on and investments in training programs.