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Health and socio-demographic profile of women of reproductive age in rural communities of southern Mozambique.

PLoS One; 13(2): e0184249, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29394247
Reliable statistics on maternal morbidity and mortality are scarce in low and middle-income countries, especially in rural areas. This is the case in Mozambique where many births happen at home. Furthermore, a sizeable number of facility births have inadequate registration. Such information is crucial for developing effective national and global health policies for maternal and child health. The aim of this study was to generate reliable baseline socio-demographic information on women of reproductive age as well as to establish a demographic surveillance platform to support the planning and implementation of the Community Level Intervention for Pre-eclampsia (CLIP) study, a cluster randomized controlled trial. This study represents a census of all women of reproductive age (12-49 years) in twelve rural communities in Maputo and Gaza provinces of Mozambique. The data were collected through electronic forms implemented in Open Data Kit (ODK) (an app for android based tablets) and household and individual characteristics. Verbal autopsies were conducted on all reported maternal deaths to determine the underlying cause of death. Between March and October 2014, 50,493 households and 80,483 women of reproductive age (mean age 26.9 years) were surveyed. A total of 14,617 pregnancies were reported in the twelve months prior to the census, resulting in 9,029 completed pregnancies. Of completed pregnancies, 8,796 resulted in live births, 466 resulted in stillbirths and 288 resulted in miscarriages. The remaining pregnancies had not yet been completed during the time of the survey (5,588 pregnancies). The age specific fertility indicates that highest rate (188 live births per 1,000 women) occurs in the age 20-24 years old. The estimated stillbirth rate was 50.3/1,000 live and stillbirths; neonatal mortality rate was 13.3/1,000 live births and maternal mortality ratio was 204.6/100,000 live births. The most common direct cause of maternal death was eclampsia and tuberculosis was the most common indirect cause of death. This study found that fertility rate is high at age 20-24 years old. Pregnancy in the advanced age (>35 years of age) in this study was associated with higher poor outcomes such as miscarriage and stillbirth. The study also found high stillbirth rate indicating a need for increased attention to maternal health in southern Mozambique. Tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS are prominent indirect causes of maternal death, while eclampsia represents the number one direct obstetric cause of maternal deaths in these communities. Additional efforts to promote safe motherhood and improve child survival are crucial in these communities.