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Pathophysiology of IBD associated diarrhea.

Tissue Barriers; : e1463897, 2018 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29737913
Inflammatory bowel diseases broadly categorized into Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are chronic inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract with increasing prevalence worldwide. The etiology of the disease is complex and involves a combination of genetic, environmental, immunological and gut microbial factors. Recurring and bloody diarrhea is the most prevalent and debilitating symptom in IBD. The pathogenesis of IBD-associated diarrhea is multifactorial and is essentially an outcome of mucosal damage caused by persistent inflammation resulting in dysregulated intestinal ion transport, impaired epithelial barrier function and increased accessibility of the pathogens to the intestinal mucosa. Altered expression and/or function of epithelial ion transporters and channels is the principle cause of electrolyte retention and water accumulation in the intestinal lumen leading to diarrhea in IBD. Aberrant barrier function further contributes to diarrhea via leak-flux mechanism. Mucosal penetration of enteric pathogens promotes dysbiosis and exacerbates the underlying immune system further perpetuating IBD associated-tissue damage and diarrhea. Here, we review the mechanisms of impaired ion transport and loss of epithelial barrier function contributing to diarrhea associated with IBD.