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Vascular Endothelial Dysfunction in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Pharmacological and Nonpharmacological Targets.

Oxid Med Cell Longev; 2018: 2568569, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29849875
Inflammatory bowel diseases, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are chronic inflammatory conditions involving primarily the gastrointestinal tract. However, they may be also associated with systemic manifestations and comorbidities. The relationship between chronic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction has been extensively demonstrated. Mucosal immunity and gastrointestinal physiology are modified in inflammatory bowel diseases, and these modifications are mainly sustained by alterations of endothelial function. The key elements involved in this process are cytokines, inflammatory cells, growth factors, nitric oxide, endothelial adhesion molecules, and coagulation cascade factors. In this review, we discuss available data in literature concerning endothelial dysfunction in patients affected by inflammatory bowel disease and we focus our attention on both pharmacological and nonpharmacological therapeutic targets.