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Gender differences in chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases: a narrative review.

Panminerva Med; 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29856178
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is generally considered to be prevalent in males. However, smoking is rising in women in developing and developed countries, while exposure to biomass fuel for domestic purposes is a recognized risk factor among females. Females developing more severe COPD patterns due to tobacco exposure than men maybe due to a genetic predisposition, a greater dose-dependent effect of smoke related to smaller airways caliber and an increased oxidative stress with augmented TGF-beta1 signaling. Gender hormones also seem to be involved in tobacco-smoke metabolism and in lung and pulmonary development. while menopause is associated with accelerated alveolar loss and decline of lung function pulmonary function. The time to diagnosis differs between the sexes since a lower rate of spirometry is performed in women. Also comorbidities differ between genders: osteoporosis, inflammatory bowel diseases, reflux, hypertension, rheumatoid arthritis, and mental diseases are more common in women. Women pay more attention to breathlessness, maybe due to higher emotional response and anxiety. These elements could lead to higher hospitalization rates in women. The aim of this review is to provide the available evidence with the aim of inviting healthcare professionals to evaluate gender differences in patients with COPD, key point for optimizing the care plan.