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Gender differences in chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases: a narrative review.

Panminerva Med; 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29856178
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is generally considered to be prevalent in males. However, smoking is rising in women in developing and developed countries, while exposure to biomass fuel for domestic purposes is a recognized risk factor among females. Females developing more severe COPD patterns due to tobacco exposure than men maybe due to a genetic predisposition, a greater dose-dependent effect of smoke related to smaller airways caliber and an increased oxidative stress with au