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Intestinal tuberculosis and Crohn's disease: the importance and difficulty of a differential diagnosis.

Rev Esp Enferm Dig; 1102018 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30168341
Tuberculosis (TB) is the most prevalent infection worldwide and affects one third of the population, predominantly in developing countries. Intestinal TB (ITB) is the sixth most frequent extra-pulmonary TB infection. Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that arises from the interaction of immunological, environmental and genetic factors. Due to changes in the epidemiology of both diseases, distinguishing CD from ITB is a challenge, particularly in immunocompromised patients and those from areas where TB is endemic. Furthermore, both TB and CD have a predilection for the ileocecal area. In addition, they share very similar clinical, radiological and endoscopic findings. An incorrect diagnosis and treatment may increase morbidity and mortality. Thus, a great degree of caution is required as well as a familiarity with certain characteristics of the diseases, which will aid the differentiation between the two diseases.