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Fecal microbiota transplantation in cancer management: Current status and perspectives.

Int J Cancer; 2018 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30458058
The human gut is home to a large and diverse microbial community, comprising about 1000 bacterial species. The gut microbiota exists in a symbiotic relationship with its host, playing a decisive role in the host's nutrition, immunity, and metabolism. Accumulating studies have revealed the associations between gut dysbiosis or some special bacteria and various cancers. Emerging data suggest that gut microbiota can modulate the effectiveness of cancer therapies, especially immunotherapy. Manipulating the microbial populations with therapeutic intent has become a hot topic of cancer research, and the most dramatic manipulation of gut microbiota refers to fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from healthy individuals to patients. FMT has demonstrated remarkable clinical efficacy against Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and it is highly recommended for the treatment of recurrent or refractory CDI. Lately, interest is growing in the therapeutic potential of FMT for other diseases, including cancers. We briefly reviewed the current researches about gut microbiota and its link to cancer, and then summarized the recent pre-clinical and clinical evidence to indicate the potential of FMT in cancer management as well as cancer-treatment associated complications. We also presented the rationale of FMT for cancer management such as reconstruction of intestinal microbiota, amelioration of bile acid metabolism, and modulation of immunotherapy efficacy. This article would help to better understand this new therapeutic approach for cancer patients by targeting gut microbiota. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.