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Effect of spraying direction on the exposure to handlers with hand-pumped knapsack sprayer in maize field.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf; 170: 107-111, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30529608
Only less than one percent applied pesticides reach the target pest, the remainder spread out into the environment, effecting on workers, bystanders, consumers and so on. Handlers with manual knapsack sprayer are completely exposed to the pesticide spray plume when they deal with the pesticides. Those kinds of sprayer are widely used in developing countries, more than 75% of farmers using hand-pumped knapsack sprayer in China, yet rarely systematic studies had been focused on the typical applying scenario. The occupational exposure of pesticide is highly correlated with the pesticide spray plume flying time in the air in this scenario. Our study aimed to compare the estimated exposure level of handlers to chlorpyrifos sprayed at three spraying direction using a lever-operated knapsack in small farms in five agro-climatic zones of China. Experiments were performed by 24 farms in each province with three different crop heights (< 80 cm, spraying downward; 80-130 cm, spraying horizontal; and > 130 cm, spraying upward; eight farms for every direction) under typical field conditions. Each farmer covered a uniform area of 667 m2. The whole body dosimetry method and a personal air sampler were used to monitor the dermal and inhalation exposure. The estimated dermal exposure of the three spraying direction was 629, 1580, and 2140 mg/kg, respectively. The results showed that the total dermal exposure level increased with the spraying direction from downward to upward. Furthermore, appropriate cotton coveralls could reduce more than 90% of the total dermal exposure.