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Predictive metabolic signatures for the occurrence and development of diabetic nephropathy and the intervention of Ginkgo biloba leaves extract based on gas or liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry.

J Pharm Biomed Anal; 166: 30-39, 2019 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30599279
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the leading causes of death in diabetes mellitus (DM). Early warning and therapy has significant clinical value for DN. This research sought to find biomarkers to predict the occurrence and development of DN and the intervention of Ginkgo biloba leaves extract (GBE) by quantifying fatty acids, amino acids, and nucleosides and nucleobases in rat plasma. Samples were respectively collected at the weekend of 5-10 weeks after diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin were defined. Plasma fasting blood-glucose, kidney index, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, urine albumin excretion and ultrastructural morphology of kidney were measured or observed. Fatty acids, amino acids and nucleosides and nucleobases in rat plasma were analyzed by gas chromatography or liquid phase chromatography and mass spectrometry, respectively. From the biochemical index and morphological change of kidney, the rats from the 5th to 7th week were in the stage of DM while from the begin of 8th week the rats were suggested in the early stage of DN. The results of quantitative metabolomics showed that 16 differential metabolites were related to the progression of DN, and oleic acid, glutamate and guanosine might be the potential biomarkers of kidney injury. 14 differential metabolites were related to GBE against the progression of DN, while oleic acid and glutamate might be the potential biomarkers of GBE against kidney injury. Those findings potentially promote the understanding of the pathogenic progression of DN and reveal the therapeutic mechanism of GBE against DN.