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Ionic Liquid Stabilized Niobium Oxoclusters Catalyzing Oxidation of Sulfides with Exceptional Activity.

Chemistry; 25(16): 4206-4217, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30690807
We present here a new class of niobium oxoclusters that are stabilized effectively by carboxylate ionic liquids. These functionalized ILs are designated as [TBA][LA], [TBA][PA], and [TBA][HPA] in this work, in which TBA represents tetrabutylammonium and LA, PA, and HPA refer to lactate, propionate, 3-hydroxypropionate anions, respectively. The as-synthesized Nb oxoclusters have been characterized by use of elemental analysis, NMR, IR, XRD, TGA, HRTEM. It was found that [TBA][LA]-stabilized Nb oxoclusters (Nb-OC@[TBA][LA]) are uniformly dispersed with an average particle size of 2-3 nm and afforded exceptionally high catalytic activity for the selective oxidation of various thioethers. The turnover number with Nb-OC@[TBA][LA] catalyst was over 56 000 at catalyst loading as low as 0.0033 mol % (1 ppm). Meantime, the catalyst also showed the high activity for the epoxidation of olefins and allylic alcohols by using only 0.065 mol % of catalyst (50 ppm). The characterization of 93 Nb NMR spectra revealed that the Nb oxoclusters underwent structural transformation in the presence of H2 O2 but regenerated to their initial state at the end of the reaction. In particular, the highly dispersed Nb oxoclusters can absorb a large amount of polar organic solvents and thus were swollen greatly, which exhibited "pseudo" liquid phase behavior, and enabled the substrate molecules to be highly accessible to the catalytic center of Nb oxocluster units.