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New graft manipulation strategies improve the outcome of mismatched stem cell transplantation in children with primary immunodeficiencies.

J Allergy Clin Immunol; 144(1): 280-293, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30731121

BACKGROUND:

Mismatched stem cell transplantation is associated with a high risk of graft loss, graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), and transplant-related mortality. Alternative graft manipulation strategies have been used over the last 11 years to reduce these risks.

OBJECTIVE:

We investigated the outcome of using different graft manipulation strategies among children with primary immunodeficiencies.

METHODS:

Between 2006 and 2017, 147 patients with primary immunodeficiencies received 155 mismatched grafts: 30 T-cell receptor (TCR) αß/CD19-depleted grafts, 43 cord blood (CB) grafts (72% with no serotherapy), 17 CD34+ selection with T-cell add-back grafts, and 65 unmanipulated grafts.

RESULTS:

The estimated 8-year survival of the entire cohort was 79%, transplant-related mortality was 21.7%, and the graft failure rate was 6.7%. Posttransplantation viral reactivation, grade II to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD), and chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGvHD) complicated 49.6%, 35%, and 15% of transplantations, respectively. Use of TCRαß/CD19 depletion was associated with a significantly lower incidence of grade II to IV aGvHD (11.5%) and cGvHD (0%), although with a greater incidence of viral reactivation (70%) in comparison with other grafts. T-cell immune reconstitution was robust among CB transplants, although with a high incidence (56.7%) of grade II to IV aGvHD. Stable full donor engraftment was significantly greater at 80% among TCRαß+/CD19+-depleted and CB transplants versus 40% to 60% among the other groups.

CONCLUSIONS:

Rapidly accessible CB and haploidentical grafts are suitable alternatives for patients with no HLA-matched donor. Cord transplantation without serotherapy and TCRαß+/CD19+-depleted grafts produced comparable survival rates of around 80%, although with a high rate of aGvHD with the former and a high risk of viral reactivation with the latter that need to be addressed.