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Electro-Optic Modulation in Hybrid Metal Halide Perovskites.

Adv Mater; 31(16): e1808336, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30811666
Rapid and efficient conversion of electrical signals to optical signals is needed in telecommunications and data network interconnection. The linear electro-optic (EO) effect in noncentrosymmetric materials offers a pathway to such conversion. Conventional inorganic EO materials make on-chip integration challenging, while organic nonlinear molecules suffer from thermodynamic molecular disordering that decreases the EO coefficient of the material. It has been posited that hybrid metal halide perovskites could potentially combine the advantages of inorganic materials (stable crystal orientation) with those of organic materials (solution processing). Here, layered metal halide perovskites are reported and investigated for in-plane birefringence and linear electro-optic response. Phenylmethylammonium lead chloride (PMA2 PbCl4 ) crystals are grown that exhibit a noncentrosymmetric space group. Birefringence measurements and Raman spectroscopy confirm optical and structural anisotropy in the material. By applying an electric field on the crystal surface, the linear EO effect in PMA2 PbCl4 is reported and its EO coefficient is determined to be 1.40 pm V-1 . This is the first demonstration of this effect in hybrid metal halide perovskites, materials that feature both highly ordered crystalline structures and solution processability. The in-plane birefringence and electro-optic response reveal that layered perovskite crystals could be further explored for potential applications in polarizing optics and EO modulation.