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Bone development and remodeling in metabolic disorders.

J Inherit Metab Dis; 2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30942483
There are many metabolic disorders that present with bone phenotypes. In some cases, the pathological bone symptoms are the main features of the disease whereas in others they are a secondary characteristic. In general, the generation of the bone problems in these disorders is not well understood and the therapeutic options for them are scarce. Bone development occurs in the early stages of embryonic development where the bone formation, or osteogenesis, takes place. This osteogenesis can be produced through the direct transformation of the pre-existing mesenchymal cells into bone tissue (intramembranous ossification) or by the replacement of the cartilage by bone (endochondral ossification). In contrast, bone remodeling takes place during the bone's growth, after the bone development, and continues throughout the whole life. The remodeling involves the removal of mineralized bone by osteoclasts followed by the formation of bone matrix by the osteoblasts, which subsequently becomes mineralized. In some metabolic diseases, bone pathological features are associated with bone development problems but in others they are associated with bone remodeling. Here, we describe three examples of impaired bone development or remodeling in metabolic diseases, including work by others and the results from our research. In particular, we will focus on hereditary multiple exostosis (or osteochondromatosis), Gaucher disease, and the susceptibility to atypical femoral fracture in patients treated with bisphosphonates for several years.