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Health risk of phthalates in water environment: Occurrence in water resources, bottled water, and tap water, and burden of disease from exposure through drinking water in tehran, Iran.

Environ Res; 173: 469-479, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981118
Occurrence of phthalates in water resources, bottled water, and tap water, and health risk of exposure to the phthalates through drinking water in Tehran, Iran, 2018 were studied. The six phthalates with the most health and environmental concerns, including di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), and di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP) were monitored in drinking water and water resources. The average levels (±standard deviation: SD) of the total phthalates in drinking water from the water distribution system, bottled water, surface waters, and ground waters were determined to be 0.76 ±â€¯0.19, 0.96 ±â€¯0.10, 1.06 ±â€¯0.23, and 0.77 ±â€¯0.06 µg/L, respectively. The dominant compounds in the phthalates were DMP and DEHP causing a contribution to the total phthalate levels higher than 60% in all the water sources. The phthalate levels of drinking water significantly increased by contact of hot water with disposable plastic and paper cups and by sunlight exposure of bottled water (p value < 0.05). The hazard quotients (HQs) of DEHP, BBP, DBP, and DEP for all ages both sexes combined were determined to be 1.56 × 10 , 1.01 × 10 , 1.80 × 10 , and 1.29 × 10 , respectively that were much lower than the boundary value of 1.0. The disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and DALY rate (per 100,000 people) attributable to DEHP intake through drinking water for all ages both sexes combined were estimated to be 6.385 (uncertainty interval: UI 95% 1.892 to 22.133), and 0.073 (0.022-0.255), respectively. The proportion of mortality in the attributable DALYs was over 96%. The attributable DALY rate exhibited no significant difference by sex, but was considerably affected by age in a manner that the DALY rates ranged from 0.052 (0.015-0.175) in the age group 65 y plus to 0.099 (0.026-0.304) in the age group 5 to 9 y. Both the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risks of the phthalates in drinking water were considered to be very low. The results can also be of importance in terms of developing frameworks to expand the domain of burden of disease study to the other environmental risks.