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Activation of the Unfolded Protein Response via Inhibition of Protein Disulfide Isomerase Decreases the Capacity for DNA Repair to Sensitize Glioblastoma to Radiotherapy.

Cancer Res; 79(11): 2923-2932, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30996048
Patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) survive on average 12 to 14 months after diagnosis despite surgical resection followed by radiotheraphy and temozolomide therapy. Intrinsic or acquired resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy is common and contributes to a high rate of recurrence. To investigate the therapeutic potential of protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) as a target to overcome resistance to chemoradiation, we developed a GBM tumor model wherein conditional genetic ablation of prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit beta (P4HB), the gene that encodes PDI, can be accomplished. Loss of PDI expression induced the unfolded protein response (UPR) and decreased cell survival in two independent GBM models. Nascent RNA Bru-seq analysis of PDI-depleted cells revealed a decrease in transcription of genes involved in DNA repair and cell-cycle regulation. Activation of the UPR also led to a robust decrease in RAD51 protein expression as a result of its ubiquitination-mediated proteosomal degradation. Clonogenic survival assays demonstrated enhanced killing of GBM cells in response to a combination of PDI knockdown and ionizing radiation (IR) compared with either modality alone, which correlated with a decreased capacity to repair IR-induced DNA damage. Synergistic tumor control was also observed with the combination of PDI inhibition and IR in a mouse xenograft model compared with either single agent alone. These findings provide a strong rationale for the development of PDI inhibitors and their use in combination with DNA damage-inducing, standard-of-care therapies such as IR. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings identify PDIA1 as a therapeutic target in GBM by demonstrating efficacy of its inhibition in combination with radiotherapy through a novel mechanism involving downregulation of DNA repair genes.Graphical Abstract: