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Prophylactic oral NAC reduced poor hematopoietic reconstitution by improving endothelial cells after haploidentical transplantation.

Blood Adv; 3(8): 1303-1317, 2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015207
Poor graft function (PGF) and prolonged isolated thrombocytopenia (PT) remain life-threatening complications after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Endothelial cells (ECs) play a crucial role in regulating hematopoiesis in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. However, whether the impaired BM ECs are responsible for defective hematopoiesis in PGF and PT patients requires clarification, and clinical management is challenging. Two prospective clinical trials were included in the current study. In the first trial (N = 68), PGF and PT patients demonstrated defective BM ECs pre-HSCT and impaired BM EC dynamic reconstitution at early time points post-HSCT, which was positively correlated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Receiver operating characteristic curves showed that BM EC < 0.1% pre-HSCT could identify high-risk patients with PGF and PT. The second trial enrolled patients (N = 35) with EC < 0.1% who accepted oral N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC; 400 mg 3 times per day) from -14 days pre-HSCT to +2 months post-HSCT continuously, whereas the remaining EC ≥ 0.1% patients (N = 39) received allo-HSCT only. Prophylactic NAC intervention was safe and effective in preventing the occurrence of PGF and PT in EC < 0.1% patients by promoting the dynamic reconstitution of BM ECs and CD34+ cells, along with reducing their ROS levels, which was further confirmed by in situ BM trephine biopsy analyses. These findings suggest that the impaired BM ECs pre-HSCT are responsible for the defective hematopoiesis in PGF and PT patients. Therefore, improvement of BM ECs through prophylactic NAC intervention may be a promising therapeutic approach to promote hematopoietic reconstitution post-HSCT. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT03236220 and #NCT02978274.