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[Pollution Characteristics and Occupational Exposure Risk of Heavy Metals in Indoor and Outdoor Ambient Particles at a Scaled Electronic Waste Dismantling Plant, Northwest China].

Huan Jing Ke Xue; 40(3): 1101-1110, 2019 Mar 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087956
Atmospheric particle samples (PM1.0、PM2.5、PM10) were collected from three sampling sites (indoor and outdoor workplaces of a formal e-waste dismantling plant, and upwind area) in an arid area of Northwest China. The contents of six heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were analyzed using ICP-OES. Based on this data, the concentration levels, size distribution characteristics, and occupational exposure risks of heavy metals at the indoor and outdoor dismantling workplaces were studied. Particle analysis showed that Zn (4890 ng·m-3 indoors, 1245 ng·m-3 outdoors)、Pb (indoors 1201 ng·m-3, outdoors 240 ng·m-3), and Cu (indoors 1200 ng·m-3, outdoors 110 ng·m-3) showed higher pollution levels indoors and outdoors at the dismantling workplace. Moreover, the indoor concentration was much higher than that outdoors, indicating that the dismantling activity was the main cause of the high levels of heavy metal contamination. The indoor and outdoor air pollution characteristics were closely related to the types of electronic waste dismantled. Occupational exposure risk assessments showed that the total non-carcinogenic hazard quotient (HQ) of the indoor and outdoor dismantling workshops was 1.62×10-3, and 3.60×10-4, respectively, and the carcinogenic risk values were 2.69×10-7 and 2.59×10-9. Cd caused the greatest carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks at both indoor and outdoor dismantling workplaces, but it was still far below the limits (1.0) and acceptable ranges (1×10-6) stipulated by U.S. EPA, indicating that the health risks caused by heavy metals were minor or negligible. Heavy metals in the ambient particulate matter released from an adequately equipped and formally managed e-waste dismantling plant would not lead to any public health risk. The sedimentation characteristics of particulate heavy metals in different organs of the human respiratory system exhibited that the smaller the particle size was, the greater the proportion of deposition in the depths of the respiratory system was. Enterprises should make scientific and effective decisions on the respiratory health risks caused by such fine particles to the health of professional workers.