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Preoperative Planning for Total Hip Arthroplasty for Neglected Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip.

Orthop Surg; 11(3): 348-355, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197911
Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is accompanied by morphological alterations on both the acetabular and the femoral side. Total hip arthroplasty (THA) provides effective treatment in cases of neglected DDH but requires elaborate preoperative planning. To determine the morphological changes resulting from the dysplasia, the anatomic acetabular position, the height of the femur head dislocation, the height of the femur head dislocation, and the combined anteversion must all be established. In addition, a vital and complicated process of strategizing leg length balance must be conducted in cases of severe DDH. Each type of leg length discrepancy (LLD), including bony and functional and anatomical LLD, should be evaluated in the context of the presence or absence of a fixed pelvic tilt. Moreover, with severe unilateral dislocated hips, a more inferior change in the original rotational center of the hip must be accounted for. Due to these multiple morphological changes, the accurate size of the prosthesis and the cup position are difficult to predict. In comparison with other methods, CT scan-based 3-dimensional templating provides the best accuracy. Despite the presence of anatomic alterations, various types of acetabular and femoral prostheses have been developed to treat hip dysplasia. Both cemented and cementless cups are used in DDH cases. In DDH accompanied by insufficient acetabular bone stock, a cemented cup combined with bone graft provides a reliable treatment. Monoblock stems can be used when the combined anteversion is less than 55°, and a modular stem system when this parameter is greater than 55°. Customized stems can be designed for DDH coupled with severe proximal femoral distortion. A ceramic-on-ceramic bearing is considered optimal for young DDH patients.