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Application of a Fragment-based Reactivity Profiler for the Prediction of Human Health and Environmental Toxicity Endpoints: Skin Sensitisation Potency and Aquatic Toxicity.

Ebbrell, David Jonathan; Madden, Judith Clare; Cronin, Mark T D; Schultz, Terry Wayne; Enoch, Steven J
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Toxicological effects, such as skin sensitisation and aquatic toxicity, can occur as a result of covalent bond formation between electrophilic chemicals and biological nucleophiles. One common mechanism through which covalent bonds may form is Michael addition. In silico profilers, consisting of structural alerts, have been developed that are able to identify the potential for a chemical to act as a Michael acceptor. However, such in silico profilers provide no information on rate of covalent bond formation (reactivity). This study outlines the ability of a previously developed fragment-based reactivity profiler to predict aquatic toxicity and skin sensitisation for Michael acceptors. The study also outlines the need to consider endpoint specific applicability domains, with the results showing the domain for the in vivo LLNA assay to be more complex. The study demonstrates the utility of being able to predict thiol reactivity using a fragment-based profiler, such approaches are important as part of non-animal methods for the prediction of toxicity, especially for endpoints where electrophilic reactivity is the driving force behind toxicity.
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Conflict of Interest and Funding Disclosure Policies of Environmental, Occupational, and Public Health Journals.

Resnik, David B; Konecny, Brandon; Kissling, Grace E
| Idioma(s): Inglés
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze conflict of interest (COI) and funding disclosure policies of 224 journals listed in Journal Citation Reports as focusing on environmental, occupational, or public health research. METHODS: A survey of journal policies and content analysis. RESULTS: About 96.0% of the policies required COI disclosure, 92.4% required funding disclosure, 75.9% defined COIs, 69.6% provided examples of COIs, 68.8% addressed nonfinancial COIs, 33.9% applied to editors and reviewers, 32.1% required discussion of the role of the funding source, and 1.8% included enforcement mechanisms. Policies were significantly associated with journal impact factor and publisher. CONCLUSION: Although a high percentage of journals in our sample have COI policies that provide substantial guidance to authors, there is a room for improvement. Journals that have not done so should consider developing enforcement mechanisms and applying COI policies to editors and reviewers.
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Evaluating and Refining the Conceptual Model Used in the Study of Health and Activity in Preschool Environments (SHAPES) Intervention.

Saunders, Ruth P; Pfeiffer, Karin; Brown, William H; Howie, Erin K; Dowda, Marsha; O'Neill, Jennifer R; McIver, Kerry; Pate, Russell R
| Idioma(s): Inglés
This study investigated the utility of the Study of Health and Activity in Preschool Environments (SHAPES) conceptual model, which targeted physical activity (PA) behavior in preschool children, by examining the relationship between implementation monitoring data and child PA during the school day. We monitored implementation completeness and fidelity based on multiple elements identified in the conceptual model. Comparing high-implementing, low-implementing, and control groups revealed no association between implementation and outcomes. We performed post hoc analyses, using process data, to refine our conceptual model's depiction of an effective preschool PA-promoting environment. Results suggest that a single component of the original four-component conceptual model, providing opportunities for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity through recess for 4-year-old children in preschool settings, may be a good starting place for increasing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Interventions that are implemented with optimal levels of completeness and fidelity are more likely to achieve behavior change if they are based on accurate conceptual models. Examining the mechanisms through which an intervention produces its effects, as articulated in the conceptual model that guides it, is particularly important for environmentally focused interventions because they are guided by emerging frameworks. The results of this study underscore the utility of using implementation monitoring data to examine the conceptual model on which the intervention is based.
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A review of AirQ Models and their applications for forecasting the air pollution health outcomes.

Oliveri Conti, Gea; Heibati, Behzad; Kloog, Itai; Fiore, Maria; Ferrante, Margherita
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Even though clean air is considered as a basic requirement for the maintenance of human health, air pollution continues to pose a significant health threat in developed and developing countries alike. Monitoring and modeling of classic and emerging pollutants is vital to our knowledge of health outcomes in exposed subjects and to our ability to predict them. The ability to anticipate and manage changes in atmospheric pollutant concentrations relies on an accurate representation of the chemical state of the atmosphere. The task of providing the best possible analysis of air pollution thus requires efficient computational tools enabling efficient integration of observational data into models. A number of air quality models have been developed and play an important role in air quality management. Even though a large number of air quality models have been discussed or applied, their heterogeneity makes it difficult to select one approach above the others. This paper provides a brief review on air quality models with respect to several aspects such as prediction of health effects.
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Influence of Nanotoxicity on Human Health and Environment: The Alternative Strategies.

Viswanath, Buddolla; Kim, Sanghyo
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Currently, nanotechnology revolutionizing both scientific and industrial community due to their applications in the fields of medicine, environmental protection, energy, and space exploration. Despite of the evident benefits of nanoparticles, there are still open questions about the influence of these nanoparticles on human health and environment. This is one of the critical issues that have to be addressed in the near future, before massive production of nanomaterials. Manufactured nanoparticles, which are finding ever-increasing applications in industry and consumer products fall into the category of emerging contaminants with ecological and toxicological effects on populations, communities and ecosystems. The existing experimental knowledge gave evidence that inhaled nanoparticles are less efficiently separated than larger particles by the macrophage clearance mechanisms and these nanoparticles are known to translocate through the lymphatic, circulatory and nervous systems to many tissues and organs, including the brain. In this review we highlight adverse impacts of nanoparticles on human and the environment with special emphasis on green nanoscience as a sustainable alternative.
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Testing electronic health records in the "production" environment: an essential step in the journey to a safe and effective health care system.

Wright, Adam; Aaron, Skye; Sittig, Dean F
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Thorough and ongoing testing of electronic health records (EHRs) is key to ensuring their safety and effectiveness. Many health care organizations limit testing to test environments separate from, and often different than, the production environment used by clinicians. Because EHRs are complex hardware and software systems that often interact with other hardware and software systems, no test environment can exactly mimic how the production environment will behave. An effective testing process must integrate safely conducted testing in the production environment itself, using test patients. We propose recommendations for how to safely incorporate testing in production into current EHR testing practices, with suggestions regarding the incremental release of upgrades, test patients, tester accounts, downstream personnel, and reporting.
Resultados  1-10 de 35.550