biblioteca virtual en salud

BVS - Literatura Cientifica y Técnica

 

Historico de búsqueda  ()

Su selección  ()

Collapse All  Ocultar
Expand All  Mostrar
Tipo
Texto completo (278)
Idioma
Año
Resultados  1-10 de 797
Enviar resultado
adicionar en sua lista
2.

Urban and transport planning, environmental exposures and health-new concepts, methods and tools to improve health in cities.

Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J
| Idioma(s): Inglés
BACKGROUND: The majority of people live in cities and urbanization is continuing worldwide. Cities have long been known to be society's predominant engine of innovation and wealth creation, yet they are also a main source of pollution and disease. METHODS: We conducted a review around the topic urban and transport planning, environmental exposures and health and describe the findings. RESULTS: Within cities there is considerable variation in the levels of environmental exposures such as air pollution, noise, temperature and green space. Emerging evidence suggests that urban and transport planning indicators such as road network, distance to major roads, and traffic density, household density, industry and natural and green space explain a large proportion of the variability. Personal behavior including mobility adds further variability to personal exposures, determines variability in green space and UV exposure, and can provide increased levels of physical activity. Air pollution, noise and temperature have been associated with adverse health effects including increased morbidity and premature mortality, UV and green space with both positive and negative health effects and physical activity with many health benefits. In many cities there is still scope for further improvement in environmental quality through targeted policies. Making cities 'green and healthy' goes far beyond simply reducing CO2 emissions. Environmental factors are highly modifiable, and environmental interventions at the community level, such as urban and transport planning, have been shown to be promising and more cost effective than interventions at the individual level. However, the urban environment is a complex interlinked system. Decision-makers need not only better data on the complexity of factors in environmental and developmental processes affecting human health, but also enhanced understanding of the linkages to be able to know at which level to target their actions. New research tools, methods and paradigms such as geographical information systems, smartphones, and other GPS devices, small sensors to measure environmental exposures, remote sensing and the exposome paradigm together with citizens observatories and science and health impact assessment can now provide this information. CONCLUSION: While in cities there are often silos of urban planning, mobility and transport, parks and green space, environmental department, (public) health department that do not work together well enough, multi-sectorial approaches are needed to tackle the environmental problems. The city of the future needs to be a green city, a social city, an active city, a healthy city.
adicionar en sua lista
3.

Capitalismo, Medio Ambiente, Desigualdad y Salud/ Capitalism, environment, inequality and health/ Capitalismo, meio ambiente, desigualdade e saúde

Tafani, R; Chiesa, G; Caminati, R; Gaspio, N
| Idioma(s): Español
El presente trabajo plantea que más allá de las crisis cíclicas del capitalismo, existe una crisis del sistema en sí, ya que la lógica de crear mayor riqueza ha sobrepasado las condiciones de tolerancia de la capacidad reproductiva del medio ambiente, a límites ya no permitidos para el bienestar humano. Por otro lado, este sistema económico que determina las relaciones entre los factores de la producción, arreglado a la maximización de ganancias y minimización de costos, no soluciona las inequidades en el mundo, respecto a la distribución de la riqueza. En efecto el 80% de la población más pobre no alcanza a la distribución del 20% de la renta y el 0,2% más rico se adjudica el 20% de la misma. Los resultados también indican que la inequidad genera mayor mortalidad infantil y mortalidad por enfermedades transmisibles This work states that beyond the cyclic crisis of capitalism, the system itself is in crisis, since the logic of creating greater wealth has exceeded the conditions of tolerance of the reproductive capacity of the environment, to limits not permitted for human welfare. On the other hand, this economic system that determines the relationships among production factors, settling the maximization of earnings and the minimization of costs, does not solve the world’s inequalities as regards wealth distribution. In fact, 80% of the poorest population does not reach the 20% distribution of incomes and the richest 0.02% keep 20% of it. Results also show that inequality also generates greater child mortality and mortality due to communicable diseases
adicionar en sua lista
4.

Tilápias (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae) comercializadas em Feira de Santana (Bahia) como bioindicadores de poluição ambiental em rios da bacia do Paraguaçu/ Tilapias (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae) commercializedat Feira de Santana, Bahia (Brazil), as environment bioindicators of pollution in Paraguaçu rivers basin

Mota, Geísa Gomes Pereira; Barboni, Suzi de Almeida Vasconcelos; Jesus, Marcel Carvalho de
| Idioma(s): Portugués
Espécies de tilápias comercializadas no Centro de bastecimento da cidade de Feira de Santana, Bahia (CAFS), foram utilizadas no presente trabalho para avaliar a condição dos rios da Bacia do Paraguaçu. Foram realizados testes de micronúcleo pesceo, sendo que sete coletas foram efetuadas nos meses de maio a agosto de 2008 e 22 espécimes de tilápias foram adquiridas. Três modelos de protocolos diferenciados foram utilizados. No primeiro modelo, as três etapas foram realizadas no mesmo dia, secagem do esfregaço, fixação com Metanol 100 por cento e coloração com Giemsa 10 por cento. No segundo, somente a secagem foi efetuada no dia da coleta, sendo as demais etapas realizadas 24 horas depois. No terceiro e último, apenas a coloração foi realizada no dia subsequente. Do total de 20.000 células foram encontrados 119 micronúcleos, indicando a ação de genotóxicos nas células dos peixes. Seu consumo em larga escala pode estabelecer cadeia de contaminação por genotóxicos da população de Feira de Santana. Sugere-se a realização de estudos adicionais para identificação doa gente e da cadeia de contaminação para que sejam implementadas medidas sanitárias para o restabelecimento das condições de saúde e qualidade de vida da população afetada.
adicionar en sua lista
5.

A coincineração de resíduos em fornos de cimento: riscos para a saúde e o meio ambiente/ Co-incineration in cement kilns: health and environmental risks

Milanez, Bruno; Fernandes, Lúcia de Oliveira; Porto, Marcelo Firpo de Souza
| Idioma(s): Portugués
O objetivo do artigo é discutir a forma como a coincineração de resíduos em fábricas de cimento vem crescendo no Brasil, bem como seus impactos sobre a saúde humana e o meio ambiente. Informações gerais sobre mercado e efeitos sobre a saúde foram obtidas através de revisão bibliográfica e alguns estudos de caso, escolhidos a partir de debate com integrantes da Rede Brasileira de Justiça Ambiental, foram construídos para ilustrar a situação no Brasil. Os estudos encontrados mostraram que, independente do nível de desenvolvimento tecnológico dos países, a saúde dos trabalhadores e das pessoas que moram próximas às fábricas de cimento vem sendo prejudicada pela poluição emitida pelas empresas de cimento, em especial por aquelas que praticam a coincineração. Além disso, no contexto brasileiro, a vulnerabilidade das instituições e populações afetadas tende a agravar este problema. Como conclusão, defende-se o aumento da capacidade institucional dos órgãos brasileiros responsáveis pelo monitoramento das atividades industriais, bem como uma rediscussão mais aprofundada dos aspectos políticos e éticos ligados ao transporte e comércio de resíduos industriais. In this article we discuss the development of hazardous waste co-incineration in cement kilns in Brazil as well as its impacts on health and the environment. Information was gathered through an extensive review on social and environmental impacts of co-incineration, and case studies, chosen after discussion with social movement representatives concerned with the co-incineration issue and related to the Brazilian Network on Environmental Justice, are described to illustrate the reality of co-incineration in Brazil. Studies showed that workers and community health suffers negative impacts from such practices in high-, middle- and low-income countries. In the Brazilian context, the institutional and social vulnerability intensifies these problems. To conclude, we argue for the necessity of increasing the institutional capacity of health and environmental agencies in Brazil, through staff training and better infra-structure. Additionally, we also propose a return of the debate about political and ethical aspects of industrial waste trade.
adicionar en sua lista
7.

Children's Environmental Health: Beyond National Boundaries.

Miller, Mark D; Marty, Melanie A; Landrigan, Philip J
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Children are especially vulnerable to environmental pollution, a major cause of disease, death, and disability in countries at every level of development. This article reviews threats to children, including air and water pollution, toxic industrial chemicals, pesticides, heavy metals, and hazardous wastes. Global climate change is expected to exacerbate many of these issues. Examples of innovative nongovernmental organizations and governmental programs that address the impacts of environmental hazards on children are included. International travel, adoption, migration, and movement of goods and pollutants worldwide make these conditions concerns for all pediatricians.
adicionar en sua lista
9.

Misled about lead: an assessment of online public health education material from Australia's lead mining and smelting towns.

Sullivan, Marianne; Green, Donna
| Idioma(s): Inglés
BACKGROUND: This study assesses the accuracy and comprehensiveness of online public health education materials from the three Australian cities with active lead mines and or smelters: Broken Hill, Mount Isa and Port Pirie. METHODS: Qualitative content analysis of online Australian material with comparison to international best practice where possible. RESULTS: All materials provided incomplete information about the health effects of lead and pathways of exposure compared to best practice materials. Inconsistent strategies to reduce exposure to lead were identified among the Australian cities, and some evidence-based best practices were not included. The materials normalised environmental lead and neglected to identify that there is no safe level of lead, or that primary prevention is the best strategy for protecting children's health. CONCLUSIONS: Health education materials need to clearly state health risks from lead across developmental stages and for sensitive populations, integrate a primary prevention perspective, and provide comprehensive evidence-based recommendations for reducing lead exposure in and around the home. Families who rely on information provided by these online public education materials are likely to be inadequately informed about the importance of protecting their children from exposure to lead and strategies for doing so.
adicionar en sua lista
10.

Pagamento por serviços ambientais contribuindo para a saúde ambiental, uma análise em nível local/ Payments for environmental services that contribute to environmental health, a local level analysis

Favaro, Ana Karina Merlin do Imperio; Rossin, Antonio Carlos
| Idioma(s): Portugués
O presente artigo tem como objetivo propor que os mecanismos de pagamentos por serviços ambientais sejam utilizados como uma contribuição para a melhoria da saúde ambiental, partindo do nível local e discutindo a relação entre as mudanças trazidas por esses mecanismos e a melhoria da saúde ambiental. O campo de estudo foi o município de Rio Grande da Serra (SP), com 100 por cento de seu território em área de proteção de mananciais, com população em alta vulnerabilidade social e localizado na Região Metropolitana de São Paulo, Brasil. Foi conduzido em três fases: i) revisão da literatura; ii) coleta de dados; e iii) análise do conjunto. As informações relativas à saúde ambiental do município foram disponibilizadas por parte da prefeitura municipal de Rio Grande da Serra e coletadas junto à Cetesb, IBGE e Datasus, sendo posteriormente analisadas para a obtenção de um grupo de serviços ambientais com capacidade de contribuir para a melhoria da saúde ambiental em nível local. Concluiu-se que os serviços ambientais com maior capacidade de melhoria nessa área são a regulação climática, seguida por controle de erosão e retenção de sedimentos, aprovisionamento de água e benefícios culturais e recreacionais.(AU)
Resultados  1-10 de 797