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Urban and transport planning, environmental exposures and health-new concepts, methods and tools to improve health in cities.

Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J
| Idioma(s): Inglés
BACKGROUND: The majority of people live in cities and urbanization is continuing worldwide. Cities have long been known to be society's predominant engine of innovation and wealth creation, yet they are also a main source of pollution and disease. METHODS: We conducted a review around the topic urban and transport planning, environmental exposures and health and describe the findings. RESULTS: Within cities there is considerable variation in the levels of environmental exposures such as air pollution, noise, temperature and green space. Emerging evidence suggests that urban and transport planning indicators such as road network, distance to major roads, and traffic density, household density, industry and natural and green space explain a large proportion of the variability. Personal behavior including mobility adds further variability to personal exposures, determines variability in green space and UV exposure, and can provide increased levels of physical activity. Air pollution, noise and temperature have been associated with adverse health effects including increased morbidity and premature mortality, UV and green space with both positive and negative health effects and physical activity with many health benefits. In many cities there is still scope for further improvement in environmental quality through targeted policies. Making cities 'green and healthy' goes far beyond simply reducing CO2 emissions. Environmental factors are highly modifiable, and environmental interventions at the community level, such as urban and transport planning, have been shown to be promising and more cost effective than interventions at the individual level. However, the urban environment is a complex interlinked system. Decision-makers need not only better data on the complexity of factors in environmental and developmental processes affecting human health, but also enhanced understanding of the linkages to be able to know at which level to target their actions. New research tools, methods and paradigms such as geographical information systems, smartphones, and other GPS devices, small sensors to measure environmental exposures, remote sensing and the exposome paradigm together with citizens observatories and science and health impact assessment can now provide this information. CONCLUSION: While in cities there are often silos of urban planning, mobility and transport, parks and green space, environmental department, (public) health department that do not work together well enough, multi-sectorial approaches are needed to tackle the environmental problems. The city of the future needs to be a green city, a social city, an active city, a healthy city.
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Prioritizing environmental issues around the world: opinions from an international Central and Eastern European environmental health conference.

Craft, Elena S; Donnelly, Kirby C; Neamtiu, Iulia; McCarty, Kathleen M; Bruce, Erica; Surkova, Irina; Kim, David; Uhnakova, Iveta; Gyorffy, Erika; Tesarova, Eva; Anderson, Beth
| Idioma(s): Inglés
BACKGROUND: As the next generation of scientists enters the field of environmental health, it is imperative that they view their contributions in the context of global environmental stewardship. In this commentary, a group of international graduate students facilitated by three experienced environmental health scientists present their views on what they consider to be the global environmental health concerns of today. This group convened initially in October 2004 at an international health conference in Prague, Czech Republic. OBJECTIVES: In this report we identify perceived environmental health concerns that exist around the world, with a focus on Central and Eastern Europe. Additionally, we address these perceived problems and offers some potential solutions. DISCUSSION: At the meeting, students were invited to participate in two panel discussions. One group of young international scientists identified several significant global environmental health concerns, including air pollution, occupational hazards, and risk factors that may exacerbate current environmental health issues. The second panel determined that communication, education, and regulation were the mechanisms for addressing current environmental challenges. CONCLUSIONS: In this commentary we expand on the views presented at the meeting and represent the concerns of young investigators from nine different countries. We provide ideas about and support the exchange of information between developed and developing countries on how to handle the environmental health challenges that face the world today.
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[Technogenic environmental pollution and the public health: analysis and prognosis].

Savilov, E D; Anganova, E V; Ilina, S V; Stepanenko, L A
| Idioma(s):
Technogenic risk factors are very aggressive for a human health. Due to the progressive increase in environmental pollution the problem of the adverse impact of these factors on the health of both the human population as a whole, and individual groups every year is becoming increasingly important. At that the influence of anthropogenic pollution on the various manifestations of infectious pathology in the scientific literature is presented very modestly. In this paper there is presented a review of research devoted to the problem of the interrelationship of man-made pollution of the environment and public health.
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Valoración económica en salud y medio ambiente del control de contaminantes orgánicos persistentes en Colombia./ [Economic assessment in health and environment from control of persistent organic pollutants in Colombia].

García-Ubaque, César A; García-Ubaque, Juan C; Vaca-Bohórquez, Martha L
| Idioma(s): Español
Objective To estimate the economic benefits related to environment and health in the context of the implementation of the Stockholm Convention for the control of Persistent Organic Pollutants in the country. METHOD: The estimation was conducted based on two scenarios: non-compliance with the agreement and compliance with the Convention. Gross profit was derived from the difference in present value between the health and environmental costs that are assumed in each scenario. Results Gross profit by decreasing health costs arising from the implementation of the Convention was estimated at USD $ 511 and USD $ 501 million. By introducing variables such as management costs and agreement on potential benefits for access to international markets, the benefits to the country were estimated at between USD $1 631 and USD $ 3 118 million. Discussion Despite the economic benefits generated by lower expenditure on health for the Convention implementation, the costs associated with reducing pollutant emissions generated a negative balance, compensated only by the expectation of higher revenues for international market access. We consider this initial economic assessment an important contribution, but it should be reviewed to include valuation methodologies involving other social profitability variables and different scenarios for emerging technologies, new scientific knowledge about these pollutants, changes in legislation and / or changes in trade agreement conditions, among others.
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[Methodological problems of noninfectious epidemiology and hygiene under chemical pollution of the environment].

Rusakov, N V
| Idioma(s):
In modern conditions the base of the assurance of the safety of human being from harmful factors of environment is the hygienic rationing for the latters. The use of this methodological principle led to the considerable decline in the level of chemical pollution of environment objects. However tens of millions of Russians are exposed to the impact of chemicals above admissible hygienic level. There was noted the high prevalence and mortality rate due to noninfectious diseases of the population. The hygienic science needs to develop and introduce methodology of personification prevention on protection of the person against chemical environmental pollution.
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[Hygienic and environmental problems of energy-saving illumination in urbanization of Crimea].

Deynego, V N; Elizarov, V B; Kaptsov, V A
| Idioma(s):
The article considers the problems offloodlights pollution in the territory of Crimea due to the work of illumination led equipment of the key elements of the international transport artery "China-Europe". There was performed a qualitative assessment of characteristics of led floodlights pollution on the example of the sea surface of the transport crossing through the Kerch Strait. Ichthyologists and oceanographers were shown to estimate the amount of phytoplankton biomass based on sunlight illumination. The excess dose of blue light in the spectrum of led lighting was established to have an impact on phytoplankton greater than solar and lunar light, creating preconditions for the increase of biological mass of phytoplankton and consequently to the formation of the "stern stock". Arising from additional phytoplankton biomass can significantly influence on the schedule offish migration in waters of the Kerch Strait, the biomass of mosquitoes and midges, which are prey for amphibians and birds. The decline of the both light pollution and its negative impact on fauna andflora requires the development of semiconductor sources of white light with a biologically adequate spectrum in the framework of the "Lighting of the lighting equipment of Crimea".
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La salud ambiental en el Perú/ [Environmental health in Peru].

Gonzales, Gustavo F; Steenland, Kyle
| Idioma(s): Español
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La salud ambiental en México: situación actual y perspectivas futuras./ [Environmental health in Mexico: current situation and future prospects].

Riojas-Rodríguez, Horacio; Schilmann, Astrid; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Finkelman, Jacobo
| Idioma(s): Español
Environmental health has been established in Mexico as a discipline since the early nineties resuming the sanitarian tradition developed over the past century and incorporating new knowledge generated by environmental toxicology and epidemiology. During the last decade there has been some progress in reviewing and updating the regulations, designing programs and policies to reduce exposure to pollutants and consolidating research groups and teaching in the area. However, the most prevalent problems previously diagnosed still remain and new risks have emerged due to environmental degradation (air pollution, toxics exposure and climate change among others) have been incorporated. If this trend persists, the environmental risks will continue to increase and multiply. The environmental health governance in Mexico has to be redesigned involving a transectoral approach. Future proposals might include: establishment of a National Environmental Health Program, update the situational diagnosis at national and regional level, strengthening teaching and graduate programs in environmental health as well as increase support for research in the area and development of an integrated environmental health surveillance system.
Resultados  1-10 de 1.629