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1.

Urban and transport planning, environmental exposures and health-new concepts, methods and tools to improve health in cities.

Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J
| Idioma(s): Inglés
BACKGROUND: The majority of people live in cities and urbanization is continuing worldwide. Cities have long been known to be society's predominant engine of innovation and wealth creation, yet they are also a main source of pollution and disease. METHODS: We conducted a review around the topic urban and transport planning, environmental exposures and health and describe the findings. RESULTS: Within cities there is considerable variation in the levels of environmental exposures such as air pollution, noise, temperature and green space. Emerging evidence suggests that urban and transport planning indicators such as road network, distance to major roads, and traffic density, household density, industry and natural and green space explain a large proportion of the variability. Personal behavior including mobility adds further variability to personal exposures, determines variability in green space and UV exposure, and can provide increased levels of physical activity. Air pollution, noise and temperature have been associated with adverse health effects including increased morbidity and premature mortality, UV and green space with both positive and negative health effects and physical activity with many health benefits. In many cities there is still scope for further improvement in environmental quality through targeted policies. Making cities 'green and healthy' goes far beyond simply reducing CO2 emissions. Environmental factors are highly modifiable, and environmental interventions at the community level, such as urban and transport planning, have been shown to be promising and more cost effective than interventions at the individual level. However, the urban environment is a complex interlinked system. Decision-makers need not only better data on the complexity of factors in environmental and developmental processes affecting human health, but also enhanced understanding of the linkages to be able to know at which level to target their actions. New research tools, methods and paradigms such as geographical information systems, smartphones, and other GPS devices, small sensors to measure environmental exposures, remote sensing and the exposome paradigm together with citizens observatories and science and health impact assessment can now provide this information. CONCLUSION: While in cities there are often silos of urban planning, mobility and transport, parks and green space, environmental department, (public) health department that do not work together well enough, multi-sectorial approaches are needed to tackle the environmental problems. The city of the future needs to be a green city, a social city, an active city, a healthy city.
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2.

Prioritizing environmental issues around the world: opinions from an international Central and Eastern European environmental health conference.

Craft, Elena S; Donnelly, Kirby C; Neamtiu, Iulia; McCarty, Kathleen M; Bruce, Erica; Surkova, Irina; Kim, David; Uhnakova, Iveta; Gyorffy, Erika; Tesarova, Eva; Anderson, Beth
| Idioma(s): Inglés
BACKGROUND: As the next generation of scientists enters the field of environmental health, it is imperative that they view their contributions in the context of global environmental stewardship. In this commentary, a group of international graduate students facilitated by three experienced environmental health scientists present their views on what they consider to be the global environmental health concerns of today. This group convened initially in October 2004 at an international health conference in Prague, Czech Republic. OBJECTIVES: In this report we identify perceived environmental health concerns that exist around the world, with a focus on Central and Eastern Europe. Additionally, we address these perceived problems and offers some potential solutions. DISCUSSION: At the meeting, students were invited to participate in two panel discussions. One group of young international scientists identified several significant global environmental health concerns, including air pollution, occupational hazards, and risk factors that may exacerbate current environmental health issues. The second panel determined that communication, education, and regulation were the mechanisms for addressing current environmental challenges. CONCLUSIONS: In this commentary we expand on the views presented at the meeting and represent the concerns of young investigators from nine different countries. We provide ideas about and support the exchange of information between developed and developing countries on how to handle the environmental health challenges that face the world today.
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3.

A coincineração de resíduos em fornos de cimento: riscos para a saúde e o meio ambiente/ Co-incineration in cement kilns: health and environmental risks

Milanez, Bruno; Porto, Marcelo Firpo de Souza; Fernandes, Lúcia de Oliveira
| Idioma(s): Portugués
O objetivo do artigo é discutir a forma como a coincineração de resíduos em fábricas de cimento vem crescendo no Brasil, bem como seus impactos sobre a saúde humana e o meio ambiente. Informações gerais sobre mercado e efeitos sobre a saúde foram obtidas através de revisão bibliográfica e alguns estudos de caso, escolhidos a partir de debate com integrantes da Rede Brasileira de Justiça Ambiental, foram construídos para ilustrar a situação no Brasil. Os estudos encontrados mostraram que, independente do nível de desenvolvimento tecnológico dos países, a saúde dos trabalhadores e das pessoas que moram próximas às fábricas de cimento vem sendo prejudicada pela poluição emitida pelas empresas de cimento, em especial por aquelas que praticam a coincineração. Além disso, no contexto brasileiro, a vulnerabilidade das instituições e populações afetadas tende a agravar este problema. Como conclusão, defende-se o aumento da capacidade institucional dos órgãos brasileiros responsáveis pelo monitoramento das atividades industriais, bem como uma rediscussão mais aprofundada dos aspectos políticos e éticos ligados ao transporte e comércio de resíduos industriais. In this article we discuss the development of hazardous waste co-incineration in cement kilns in Brazil as well as its impacts on health and the environment. Information was gathered through an extensive review on social and environmental impacts of co-incineration, and case studies, chosen after discussion with social movement representatives concerned with the co-incineration issue and related to the Brazilian Network on Environmental Justice, are described to illustrate the reality of co-incineration in Brazil. Studies showed that workers and community health suffers negative impacts from such practices in high-, middle- and low-income countries. In the Brazilian context, the institutional and social vulnerability intensifies these problems. To conclude, we argue for the necessity of increasing the institutional capacity of health and environmental agencies in Brazil, through staff training and better infra-structure. Additionally, we also propose a return of the debate about political and ethical aspects of industrial waste trade.
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4.

Tilápias (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae) comercializadas em Feira de Santana (Bahia) como bioindicadores de poluição ambiental em rios da bacia do Paraguaçu/ Tilapias (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae) commercializedat Feira de Santana, Bahia (Brazil), as environment bioindicators of pollution in Paraguaçu rivers basin

Mota, Geísa Gomes Pereira; Jesus, Marcel Carvalho de; Barboni, Suzi de Almeida Vasconcelos
| Idioma(s): Portugués
Espécies de tilápias comercializadas no Centro de bastecimento da cidade de Feira de Santana, Bahia (CAFS), foram utilizadas no presente trabalho para avaliar a condição dos rios da Bacia do Paraguaçu. Foram realizados testes de micronúcleo pesceo, sendo que sete coletas foram efetuadas nos meses de maio a agosto de 2008 e 22 espécimes de tilápias foram adquiridas. Três modelos de protocolos diferenciados foram utilizados. No primeiro modelo, as três etapas foram realizadas no mesmo dia, secagem do esfregaço, fixação com Metanol 100 por cento e coloração com Giemsa 10 por cento. No segundo, somente a secagem foi efetuada no dia da coleta, sendo as demais etapas realizadas 24 horas depois. No terceiro e último, apenas a coloração foi realizada no dia subsequente. Do total de 20.000 células foram encontrados 119 micronúcleos, indicando a ação de genotóxicos nas células dos peixes. Seu consumo em larga escala pode estabelecer cadeia de contaminação por genotóxicos da população de Feira de Santana. Sugere-se a realização de estudos adicionais para identificação doa gente e da cadeia de contaminação para que sejam implementadas medidas sanitárias para o restabelecimento das condições de saúde e qualidade de vida da população afetada.
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6.

[Environment and health: priorities for preventive medicine].

Rakhmanin, Yu A; Mikhaylova, R I
| Idioma(s):
Contemporary environmental factors influencing the formation of the environment and public health have been analyzed The increasing chemical pollution of the environment (air water, soil, living environment), and the intensification of the impact of physical factors in the first place, "electromagnetic smog" associated with the widespread use of appliances and computer equipment, cellular threaten public health have been shown. In this connection, there were determined priorities and main directions of research in the platform "Preventive Environment", approved by Ministry of Health of Russia, which is based on the concept of the factor prevention of noninfectious diseases.
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7.

A coincineração de resíduos em fornos de cimento: riscos para a saúde e o meio ambiente./ [Co-incineration in cement kilns: health and environmental risks].

Milanez, Bruno; Fernandes, Lúcia de Oliveira; Porto, Marcelo Firpo de Souza
| Idioma(s): Portugués
In this article we discuss the development of hazardous waste co-incineration in cement kilns in Brazil as well as its impacts on health and the environment. Information was gathered through an extensive review on social and environmental impacts of co-incineration, and case studies, chosen after discussion with social movement representatives concerned with the co-incineration issue and related to the Brazilian Network on Environmental Justice, are described to illustrate the reality of co-incineration in Brazil. Studies showed that workers and community health suffers negative impacts from such practices in high-, middle- and low-income countries. In the Brazilian context, the institutional and social vulnerability intensifies these problems. To conclude, we argue for the necessity of increasing the institutional capacity of health and environmental agencies in Brazil, through staff training and better infra-structure. Additionally, we also propose a return of the debate about political and ethical aspects of industrial waste trade.
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8.

Policies for accelerating access to clean energy, improving health, advancing development, and mitigating climate change.

Haines, Andy; Smith, Kirk R; Anderson, Dennis; Epstein, Paul R; McMichael, Anthony J; Roberts, Ian; Wilkinson, Paul; Woodcock, James; Woods, Jeremy
| Idioma(s): Inglés
The absence of reliable access to clean energy and the services it provides imposes a large disease burden on low-income populations and impedes prospects for development. Furthermore, current patterns of fossil-fuel use cause substantial ill-health from air pollution and occupational hazards. Impending climate change, mainly driven by energy use, now also threatens health. Policies to promote access to non-polluting and sustainable sources of energy have great potential both to improve public health and to mitigate (prevent) climate disruption. There are several technological options, policy levers, and economic instruments for sectors such as power generation, transport, agriculture, and the built environment. However, barriers to change include vested interests, political inertia, inability to take meaningful action, profound global inequalities, weak technology-transfer mechanisms, and knowledge gaps that must be addressed to transform global markets. The need for policies that prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate while addressing the energy needs of disadvantaged people is a central challenge of the current era. A comprehensive programme for clean energy should optimise mitigation and, simultaneously, adaption to climate change while maximising co-benefits for health--eg, through improved air, water, and food quality. Intersectoral research and concerted action, both nationally and internationally, will be required.
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9.

La salud ambiental en México: situación actual y perspectivas futuras./ [Environmental health in Mexico: current situation and future prospects].

Riojas-Rodríguez, Horacio; Schilmann, Astrid; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Finkelman, Jacobo
| Idioma(s): Español
Environmental health has been established in Mexico as a discipline since the early nineties resuming the sanitarian tradition developed over the past century and incorporating new knowledge generated by environmental toxicology and epidemiology. During the last decade there has been some progress in reviewing and updating the regulations, designing programs and policies to reduce exposure to pollutants and consolidating research groups and teaching in the area. However, the most prevalent problems previously diagnosed still remain and new risks have emerged due to environmental degradation (air pollution, toxics exposure and climate change among others) have been incorporated. If this trend persists, the environmental risks will continue to increase and multiply. The environmental health governance in Mexico has to be redesigned involving a transectoral approach. Future proposals might include: establishment of a National Environmental Health Program, update the situational diagnosis at national and regional level, strengthening teaching and graduate programs in environmental health as well as increase support for research in the area and development of an integrated environmental health surveillance system.
Resultados  1-10 de 1.471