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1.

Urban and transport planning, environmental exposures and health-new concepts, methods and tools to improve health in cities.

Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J
| Idioma(s): Inglés
BACKGROUND: The majority of people live in cities and urbanization is continuing worldwide. Cities have long been known to be society's predominant engine of innovation and wealth creation, yet they are also a main source of pollution and disease. METHODS: We conducted a review around the topic urban and transport planning, environmental exposures and health and describe the findings. RESULTS: Within cities there is considerable variation in the levels of environmental exposures such as air pollution, noise, temperature and green space. Emerging evidence suggests that urban and transport planning indicators such as road network, distance to major roads, and traffic density, household density, industry and natural and green space explain a large proportion of the variability. Personal behavior including mobility adds further variability to personal exposures, determines variability in green space and UV exposure, and can provide increased levels of physical activity. Air pollution, noise and temperature have been associated with adverse health effects including increased morbidity and premature mortality, UV and green space with both positive and negative health effects and physical activity with many health benefits. In many cities there is still scope for further improvement in environmental quality through targeted policies. Making cities 'green and healthy' goes far beyond simply reducing CO2 emissions. Environmental factors are highly modifiable, and environmental interventions at the community level, such as urban and transport planning, have been shown to be promising and more cost effective than interventions at the individual level. However, the urban environment is a complex interlinked system. Decision-makers need not only better data on the complexity of factors in environmental and developmental processes affecting human health, but also enhanced understanding of the linkages to be able to know at which level to target their actions. New research tools, methods and paradigms such as geographical information systems, smartphones, and other GPS devices, small sensors to measure environmental exposures, remote sensing and the exposome paradigm together with citizens observatories and science and health impact assessment can now provide this information. CONCLUSION: While in cities there are often silos of urban planning, mobility and transport, parks and green space, environmental department, (public) health department that do not work together well enough, multi-sectorial approaches are needed to tackle the environmental problems. The city of the future needs to be a green city, a social city, an active city, a healthy city.
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4.

Minería informal e ilegal y contaminación con mercurio en Madre de Dios: un problema de salud pública/ Informal and illegal mining and mercury pollution in Madre de Dios: a public health problem

Osores Plenge, Fernando; Rojas Jaimes, Jesús Eduardo; Manrique Lara Estrada, Carlos Hermógenes
| Idioma(s): Español
La minería aluvial del oro que se ejecuta tanto informal como ilegalmente en el corredor minero y zonas de exclusión total para la minería en Madre de Dios, viene generando impactos directos e indirectos sobre la salud no sólo de los mineros que trabajan en condiciones de riesgo elevado a la exposición al polvo, la radiación solar excesiva, la humedad, el ruido, traumatismo mecánico vibratorio, exposición directa al mercurio especialmente en estado gaseoso presente en los lugares de compra de oro y otros productos químicos tóxicos, accidentes laborales frecuentes, sino también sobre la población general debido a las ingentes cantidades de mercurio vertido a las fuentes de agua que son utilizadas por los poblados de toda la cuenca del río Madre de Dios, además de la destrucción indiscriminada del frágil suelo amazónico, la deforestación de sus bosques, la migración desordenada asociada al incremento de enfermedades infectocontagiosas, violencia social, trata de personas, prostitución e inseguridad alimentaria. Alluvial gold mining, which takes place informally or illegally within the mining allowed areas and within the forbidden areas for mining in Madre de Dios, generates a direct and indirect impact upon people's health, not only for miners who work in high risk conditions, exposing themselves to dust , excessive solar radiation, high humidity, noise, vibrating mechanical trauma, mercury which may be inhaled or accidentally ingested, particularly in areas where gold is sold and bought; and also it implies exposure to toxic chemicals and working accidents. On the other hand, the general population is exposed to water pollution because of mercury waste thrown to water sources used by people living in Madre de Dios river basin, and other problems include Amazonian forest and soil destruction, massive migration leading to an increase in transmissible diseases, social violence, person trafficking, prostitution, and unhealthy food.
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5.

Tilápias (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae) comercializadas em Feira de Santana (Bahia) como bioindicadores de poluição ambiental em rios da bacia do Paraguaçu/ Tilapias (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae) commercializedat Feira de Santana, Bahia (Brazil), as environment bioindicators of pollution in Paraguaçu rivers basin

Mota, Geísa Gomes Pereira; Jesus, Marcel Carvalho de; Barboni, Suzi de Almeida Vasconcelos
| Idioma(s): Portugués
Espécies de tilápias comercializadas no Centro de bastecimento da cidade de Feira de Santana, Bahia (CAFS), foram utilizadas no presente trabalho para avaliar a condição dos rios da Bacia do Paraguaçu. Foram realizados testes de micronúcleo pesceo, sendo que sete coletas foram efetuadas nos meses de maio a agosto de 2008 e 22 espécimes de tilápias foram adquiridas. Três modelos de protocolos diferenciados foram utilizados. No primeiro modelo, as três etapas foram realizadas no mesmo dia, secagem do esfregaço, fixação com Metanol 100 por cento e coloração com Giemsa 10 por cento. No segundo, somente a secagem foi efetuada no dia da coleta, sendo as demais etapas realizadas 24 horas depois. No terceiro e último, apenas a coloração foi realizada no dia subsequente. Do total de 20.000 células foram encontrados 119 micronúcleos, indicando a ação de genotóxicos nas células dos peixes. Seu consumo em larga escala pode estabelecer cadeia de contaminação por genotóxicos da população de Feira de Santana. Sugere-se a realização de estudos adicionais para identificação doa gente e da cadeia de contaminação para que sejam implementadas medidas sanitárias para o restabelecimento das condições de saúde e qualidade de vida da população afetada.
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6.

Capitalismo, Medio Ambiente, Desigualdad y Salud/ Capitalism, environment, inequality and health/ Capitalismo, meio ambiente, desigualdade e saúde

Tafani, R; Chiesa, G; Caminati, R; Gaspio, N
| Idioma(s): Español
El presente trabajo plantea que más allá de las crisis cíclicas del capitalismo, existe una crisis del sistema en sí, ya que la lógica de crear mayor riqueza ha sobrepasado las condiciones de tolerancia de la capacidad reproductiva del medio ambiente, a límites ya no permitidos para el bienestar humano. Por otro lado, este sistema económico que determina las relaciones entre los factores de la producción, arreglado a la maximización de ganancias y minimización de costos, no soluciona las inequidades en el mundo, respecto a la distribución de la riqueza. En efecto el 80% de la población más pobre no alcanza a la distribución del 20% de la renta y el 0,2% más rico se adjudica el 20% de la misma. Los resultados también indican que la inequidad genera mayor mortalidad infantil y mortalidad por enfermedades transmisibles This work states that beyond the cyclic crisis of capitalism, the system itself is in crisis, since the logic of creating greater wealth has exceeded the conditions of tolerance of the reproductive capacity of the environment, to limits not permitted for human welfare. On the other hand, this economic system that determines the relationships among production factors, settling the maximization of earnings and the minimization of costs, does not solve the world's inequalities as regards wealth distribution. In fact, 80% of the poorest population does not reach the 20% distribution of incomes and the richest 0.02% keep 20% of it. Results also show that inequality also generates greater child mortality and mortality due to communicable diseases
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7.

A coincineração de resíduos em fornos de cimento: riscos para a saúde e o meio ambiente/ Co-incineration in cement kilns: health and environmental risks

Milanez, Bruno; Porto, Marcelo Firpo de Souza; Fernandes, Lúcia de Oliveira
| Idioma(s): Portugués
O objetivo do artigo é discutir a forma como a coincineração de resíduos em fábricas de cimento vem crescendo no Brasil, bem como seus impactos sobre a saúde humana e o meio ambiente. Informações gerais sobre mercado e efeitos sobre a saúde foram obtidas através de revisão bibliográfica e alguns estudos de caso, escolhidos a partir de debate com integrantes da Rede Brasileira de Justiça Ambiental, foram construídos para ilustrar a situação no Brasil. Os estudos encontrados mostraram que, independente do nível de desenvolvimento tecnológico dos países, a saúde dos trabalhadores e das pessoas que moram próximas às fábricas de cimento vem sendo prejudicada pela poluição emitida pelas empresas de cimento, em especial por aquelas que praticam a coincineração. Além disso, no contexto brasileiro, a vulnerabilidade das instituições e populações afetadas tende a agravar este problema. Como conclusão, defende-se o aumento da capacidade institucional dos órgãos brasileiros responsáveis pelo monitoramento das atividades industriais, bem como uma rediscussão mais aprofundada dos aspectos políticos e éticos ligados ao transporte e comércio de resíduos industriais. In this article we discuss the development of hazardous waste co-incineration in cement kilns in Brazil as well as its impacts on health and the environment. Information was gathered through an extensive review on social and environmental impacts of co-incineration, and case studies, chosen after discussion with social movement representatives concerned with the co-incineration issue and related to the Brazilian Network on Environmental Justice, are described to illustrate the reality of co-incineration in Brazil. Studies showed that workers and community health suffers negative impacts from such practices in high-, middle- and low-income countries. In the Brazilian context, the institutional and social vulnerability intensifies these problems. To conclude, we argue for the necessity of increasing the institutional capacity of health and environmental agencies in Brazil, through staff training and better infra-structure. Additionally, we also propose a return of the debate about political and ethical aspects of industrial waste trade.
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8.

Misled about lead: an assessment of online public health education material from Australia's lead mining and smelting towns.

Sullivan, Marianne; Green, Donna
| Idioma(s): Inglés
BACKGROUND: This study assesses the accuracy and comprehensiveness of online public health education materials from the three Australian cities with active lead mines and or smelters: Broken Hill, Mount Isa and Port Pirie. METHODS: Qualitative content analysis of online Australian material with comparison to international best practice where possible. RESULTS: All materials provided incomplete information about the health effects of lead and pathways of exposure compared to best practice materials. Inconsistent strategies to reduce exposure to lead were identified among the Australian cities, and some evidence-based best practices were not included. The materials normalised environmental lead and neglected to identify that there is no safe level of lead, or that primary prevention is the best strategy for protecting children's health. CONCLUSIONS: Health education materials need to clearly state health risks from lead across developmental stages and for sensitive populations, integrate a primary prevention perspective, and provide comprehensive evidence-based recommendations for reducing lead exposure in and around the home. Families who rely on information provided by these online public education materials are likely to be inadequately informed about the importance of protecting their children from exposure to lead and strategies for doing so.
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10.

World Trade Center residents' respiratory health study: new-onset respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function

Reibman, Joan; Lin, Shao; Hwang, Syni-An A.; Gulati, Mridu; Bowers, James A.; Rogers, Linda; Berger, Kenneth I.; Hoerning, Anne; Gomez, Marta; Fitzgerald, Edward F.
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Resultados  1-10 de 760