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1.

Saúde e ambiente nas políticas públicas em municípios que cultivam tabaco no sul do Brasil/ Salud y medio ambiente en la política pública en municipios cultivo de tabaco en el sur de Brasil/ Health and environment in public policies of tobacco farming municipalities in southern Brazil

Santos, Vilma Constancia Fioravante dos; Ruiz, Eliziane Nicolodi Francescato; Riquinho, Deise Lisboa; Mesquita, Marilise Oliveira
| Idioma(s): Portugués
RESUMO Objetivo Analisar os desafios e as potencialidades para o desenvolvimento e a implementação de Políticas Públicas Locais que enfoquem a relação entre o uso do agrotóxico, a saúde da população rural e do ambiente em municípios produtores de tabaco do sul do Brasil. Métodos Pesquisa qualitativa do tipo Estudo de Caso, realizada em três municípios produtores de tabaco, por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas com sete atores envolvidos na atenção à saúde municipal. Os dados foram analisados por meio da análise temática. Resultados A problemática em estudo não está entre as prioridades para as Políticas Públicas Locais. Contudo, os municípios apresentam iniciativas que envolvem ações sobre o uso de agrotóxicos, articuladas com a educação permanente e ações intersetoriais. Conclusões Ações para proteger a saúde dos produtores rurais estão necessariamente amalgamadas ao desenvolvimento sustentável, neste sentido, a agenda pública atenderia os Objetivos de Desenvolvimento do Milênio (ODM). RESUMEN Objetivo Analizar los retos y potencialidades para el desarrollo e implementación de políticas públicas locales que se centran en la relación entre el uso de pesticidas, la salud de la población rural y el medio ambiente en los municipios productores de tabaco en el Sur de Brasil. Métodos Tipo de caso estudio cualitativo de investigación realizado en tres municipios mayores productores de tabaco, a través de entrevista semiestructurada con siete actores involucrados a la atención de la salud municipal. Los datos fueron analizados por medio de análisis temáticos. Resultados El problema objeto de estudio no está entre las prioridades de las políticas públicas locales. Sin embargo, los municipios tienen iniciativas que abarcan acciones sobre el uso de pesticidas, articulados con la educación continuada y la acción intersectorial. Conclusiones acciones para proteger la salud de los agricultores están incluidas en el desarrollo sostenible así, la agenda pública también se uniría a los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio (ODM). ABSTRACT Objective To analyze the challenges and potentialities for the development and implementation of local public policies that focus on the relationship between the use of pesticides, the health of the rural population and the environment in tobacco producing municipalities in southern Brazil. Methods Qualitative case study research conducted at three major tobacco producing municipalities, by means of semi-structured interviews with seven actors involved with municipal healthcare. Data were subjected to thematic analysis. Results The studied issues are not among the priorities for the local public policy. However, municipalities have introduced initiatives involving actions on the use of pesticides that are articulated with contining education and intersectoral action. Conclusions Actions to protect the health of farmers must be combined with sustainable development, which would also help achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
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2.

O papel da geografia em face da crise ambiental/ The role of geography in the face of the environmental crisis

Souto, Raquel Dezidério
| Idioma(s): Portugués
Diante da crise ambiental atual, diversas disciplinas científicas têm se voltado para sua análise, a fim de apontar soluções para dirimir ou minimizar os danos ambientais e sociais causados pelas atividades econômicas e por outros tipos de fatores de pressão ambiental. Este artigo propõe-se inicialmente a mostrar sucintamente como mudou a visão geográfica predominante no mundo ocidental a respeito da relação entre as populações humanas e o ambiente. Uma mudança de visão que foi reflexo das mudanças que estavam em curso na geografia como um todo, resguardadas as diferenças entre os países. Discute-se ainda que a crise ambiental é uma crise do conhecimento, como afirmam cada vez mais autores. Este texto culmina com as virtudes e limitações da geografia na busca desse entendimento, no intuito de colaborar para seu avançar Given the current environmental crisis, various scientific disciplines have striven to analyze it and identify solutions to resolve or minimize the environmental and social damage caused by economic activities and other types of environmental stress factors. This article proposes to briefly show how the predominant geographic vision has changed in the Western world with regard to the relationship between human populations and the environment. This change of vision was a reflection of the changes that were taking place in Geography as a whole, with allowances for differences between countries. It is also argued that the environmental crisis is a crisis of knowledge, as some authors claim. The text culminates with the virtues and limitations of Geography in the pursuit of this understanding, with the aim of advancing it
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3.

Dinâmica da fronteira agrícola do Mato Grosso e implicações para a saúde/ Dynamics of the Mato Grosso agricultural frontier and implications for health

Weihs, Marla; Sayago, Doris; Tourrand, Jean-François
| Idioma(s): Portugués
As transformações mais profundas nos ecossistemas amazônicos foram produzidas pela expansão da fronteira agrícola. No norte de Mato Grosso, esse fenômeno contribuiu com a derrubada e queima de mais de 50% da floresta nativa. Os ecossistemas aquáticos foram contaminados com agrotóxicos e mercúrio. Objetivamos compreender como se comportou a saúde da população local em função dessas alterações ambientais. Trata-se de um estudo de caso, fundamentado pelos pilares da ecossaúde: transdisciplinaridade, participação social e equidade de gênero. Os resultados sugerem que, na fronteira agrícola amazônica de Mato Grosso, a degradação e a contaminação dos ecossistemas estão relacionadas à emergência de novas doenças. A crescente abertura da fronteira ao mercado global consolida a geração de riscos industriais, contribuindo com o aumento da incidência de doenças cronico degenerativas.(AU) In the Brazilian Amazonia, the most profound transformations of the ecosystems were produced by the expansion of the agricultural frontier. In the northern state of Mato Grosso, this phenomenon produced deforestation and the burning of more than 50% of the native forest. Aquatic ecosystems have been contaminated with pesticides and mercury. We aim to understand how people's health was affected by these environmental changes. To this end, we developed a case study based on key pillars of ecohealth: transdisciplinarity, social participation and gender equality. The results suggest that in the Amazonian agricultural frontier of Mato Grosso, the degradation and contamination of ecosystems are related to the emergence of new diseases. The increasing openness of the agricultural frontier to the global market consolidates the creation of industrial risks, contributing to the increased incidence of chronic degenerative diseases.(AU)
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4.

Regional variations in the health, environmental, and climate benefits of wind and solar generation.

Siler-Evans, Kyle; Azevedo, Inês Lima; Morgan, M Granger; Apt, Jay
| Idioma(s): Inglés
When wind or solar energy displace conventional generation, the reduction in emissions varies dramatically across the United States. Although the Southwest has the greatest solar resource, a solar panel in New Jersey displaces significantly more sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter than a panel in Arizona, resulting in 15 times more health and environmental benefits. A wind turbine in West Virginia displaces twice as much carbon dioxide as the same turbine in California. Depending on location, we estimate that the combined health, environmental, and climate benefits from wind or solar range from $10/MWh to $100/MWh, and the sites with the highest energy output do not yield the greatest social benefits in many cases. We estimate that the social benefits from existing wind farms are roughly 60% higher than the cost of the Production Tax Credit, an important federal subsidy for wind energy. However, that same investment could achieve greater health, environmental, and climate benefits if it were differentiated by region.
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5.

Saúde e ambiente nas políticas públicas em municípios que cultivam tabaco no sul do Brasil./ [Health and environment in public policies of tobacco farming municipalities in southern Brazil].

Santos, Vilma Constancia Fioravante dos; Ruiz, Eliziane Nicolodi Francescato; Riquinho, Deise Lisboa; Mesquita, Marilise Oliveira
| Idioma(s): Portugués
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the challenges and potentialities for the development and implementation of local public policies that focus on the relationship between the use of pesticides, the health of the rural population and the environment in tobacco producing municipalities in southern Brazil. METHODS: Qualitative case study research conducted at three major tobacco producing municipalities, by means of semi-structured interviews with seven actors involved with municipal healthcare. Data were subjected to thematic analysis. RESULTS: The studied issues are not among the priorities for the local public policy. However, municipalities have introduced initiatives involving actions on the use of pesticides that are articulated with contining education and intersectoral action. CONCLUSIONS: Actions to protect the health of farmers must be combined with sustainable development, which would also help achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
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6.

Practice-based evidence informs environmental health policy and regulation: a case study of residential lead-soil contamination in Rhode Island.

Thompson, Marcella Remer; Burdon, Andrea; Boekelheide, Kim
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Prior to 1978, the exteriors of Rhode Island's municipal water towers were painted with lead-containing paint. Over time, this lead-containing paint either flaked-off or was mechanically removed and deposited on adjacent residential properties. Residents challenged inconsistencies across state agencies and federal requirements for collecting and analyzing soil samples. The purpose of this case study was to evaluate the efficacy of Rhode Island Department of Health (RIDOH) soil sampling regulations in determining the extent of lead contamination on residential properties using real world data. Researchers interviewed key government personnel, reviewed written accounts of events and regulations, and extracted and compiled lead data from environmental soil sampling on 31 residential properties adjacent to six municipal water towers. Data were available for 498 core samples. Approximately 26% of the residential properties had lead soil concentrations >1000 mg/kg. Overall, lead concentration was inversely related to distance from the water tower. Analysis indicated that surface samples alone were insufficient to classify a property as "lead safe". Potential for misclassification using RIDOH regulations was 13%. For properties deemed initially "lead free", the total number of samples was too few to analyze. Post-remediation lead-soil concentrations suggest the extent of lead contamination may have been deeper than initially determined. Additional data would improve the ability to draw more meaningful and generalized conclusions. Inconsistencies among regulatory agencies responsible for environmental health obfuscate transparency and erode the public's trust in the regulatory process. Recommendations for improvement include congruency across departmental regulations and specific modifications to lead-soil sampling regulations reflective of lowered CDC reference blood lead value for children 1 to 5 years old (5 µg/dL). While scientific research informed the initial development of these environmental health policies and regulations, practice-based evidence did not support their efficacy in context of real world practice.
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7.

Política de mudança do clima no município de São Paulo, Brasil: reflexividade e permeabilidade do Setor Saúde/ The climate change policy of the city of São Paulo, Brazil: reflexivity and permeability of the health sector

Landin, Rubens; Giatti, Leandro Luiz
| Idioma(s): Portugués
São Paulo é hoje uma metrópole insustentável, em que as vulnerabilidades sociais e ambientais se deparam com as incertezas das mudanças climáticas. Para o enfrentamento deste contexto o Município criou, em 2009, a Política Municipal de Mudança do Clima. O objetivo deste artigo é analisar como se articula o setor saúde na implantação dessa Política até o ano de 2012. O método adotado foi a Análise de Conteúdo e as evidências, os documentos oficiais e as entrevistas semiestruturadas. Em um contexto de transformação da sociedade, afetado por degradação ambiental e agravos socioambientais, a problemática necessita de rupturas a inércias rotineiras e de novos sistemas de conhecimentos. Os resultados demonstraram uma relação dialética intersetorial positiva, pois a hipótese da pesquisa era de que ao setor saúde caberia dar suporte a ações de monitoramento da qualidade do ar e sua verificabilidade constatou abrangência, introduzindo prevenção e promoção da saúde como focos determinantes, sobretudo, influenciando outras políticas. O processo em estudo ganha, assim, reflexividade ao avançar com medidas interativas, rompendo com a tradicionalização do modelo de política setorial reducionista e demonstra intersetorialidade e importância nas questões relacionadas à saúde pública local. São Paulo is today an unsustainable city in which social and environmental vulnerabilities are obliged to tackle the uncertainties of climate change. To face up to this situation, in 2009 the city unveiled its Climate Change Policy. The scope of this paper is to analyze how the health sector is preparing to contribute to the implementation of this policy by 2012. Content analysis was the method adopted by examining official documents and conducting semi-structured interviews. In a context of social transformation affected by environmental degradation and socio-environmental consequences there is a need for the cessation of inertia and a demand for new knowledge systems. The outcomes of the study showed a positive intersectorial dialectic relationship, since the research hypothesis was that the health sector would be called upon to back actions on air quality monitoring. Its verification showed a broad scope introducing health promotion and preventive actions as the determinant focus, especially influencing other public policies. Thus, the process under scrutiny acquired reflexivity when evolving with interactive measures breaking with the traditional sectorial and reductionist policy model. It shows an intersectorial perspective based on the importance of issues related to local public health.
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9.

The forest for the trees: a systems approach to human health research.

Gohlke, Julia M; Portier, Christopher J
| Idioma(s): Inglés
We explore the relationship between current research directions in human health and environmental and public health policy. Specifically, we suggest there is a link between the continuing emphasis in biomedical research on individualized, therapeutic solutions to human disease and the increased reliance on individual choice in response to environmental and/or public health threats. We suggest that continued research emphasis on these traditional approaches to the exclusion of other approaches will impede the discovery of important breakthroughs in human health research necessary to understand the emerging diseases of today. We recommend redirecting research programs to interdisciplinary and population-focused research that would support a systems approach to fully identifying the environmental factors that contribute to disease burden. Such an approach would be able to address the interactions between the social, ecological, and physical aspects of our environment and explicitly include these in the evaluation and management of health risks from environmental exposures.
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10.

Workgroup report: developing environmental health indicators for European children: World Health Organization Working Group.

Pond, Kathy; Kim, Rokho; Carroquino, Maria-Jose; Pirard, Philippe; Gore, Fiona; Cucu, Alexandra; Nemer, Leda; MacKay, Morag; Smedje, Greta; Georgellis, Antonis; Dalbokova, Dafina; Krzyzanowski, Michal
| Idioma(s): Inglés
A working group coordinated by the World Health Organization developed a set of indicators to protect children's health from environmental risks and to support current and future European policy needs. On the basis of identified policy needs, the group developed a core set of 29 indicators for implementation plus an extended set of eight additional indicators for future development, focusing on exposure, health effects, and action. As far as possible, the indicators were designed to use existing information and are flexible enough to be developed further to meet the needs of policy makers and changing health priorities. These indicators cover most of the priority topic areas specified in the Children's Environment and Health Action Plan for Europe (CEHAPE) as adopted in the Fourth Ministerial Conference on Health and Environment in 2004, and will be used to monitor the implementation of CEHAPE. This effort can be viewed as an integral part of the Global Initiative on Children's Environmental Health Indicators, launched at the World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002.
Resultados  1-10 de 754