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1.

Challenges and Opportunities for Urban Environmental Health and Sustainability: the HEALTHY-POLIS initiative.

Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Dear, Keith; Wilkinson, Paul
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Cities around the world face many environmental health challenges including contamination of air, water and soil, traffic congestion and noise, and poor housing conditions exacerbated by unsustainable urban development and climate change. Integrated assessment of these risks offers opportunities for holistic, low carbon solutions in the urban environment that can bring multiple benefits for public health. The Healthy-Polis consortium aims to protect and promote urban health through multi-disciplinary, policy-relevant research on urban environmental health and sustainability. We are doing this by promoting improved methods of health risk assessment, facilitating international collaboration, contributing to the training of research scientists and students, and engaging with key stakeholders in government, local authorities, international organisations, industry and academia. A major focus of the consortium is to promote and support international research projects coordinated between two or more countries. The disciplinary areas represented in the consortium are many and varied, including environmental epidemiology, modelling and exposure assessment, system dynamics, health impact assessment, multi-criteria decision analysis, and other quantitative and qualitative approaches. This Healthy-Polis special issue presents a range of case studies and reviews that illustrate the need for a systems-based understanding of the urban environment.
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2.

Mental health benefits of long-term exposure to residential green and blue spaces: a systematic review.

Gascon, Mireia; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Martínez, David; Dadvand, Payam; Forns, Joan; Plasència, Antoni; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Many studies conducted during the last decade suggest the mental health benefits of green and blue spaces. We aimed to systematically review the available literature on the long-term mental health benefits of residential green and blue spaces by including studies that used standardized tools or objective measures of both the exposures and the outcomes of interest. We followed the PRISMA statement guidelines for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analysis. In total 28 studies were included in the systematic review. We found limited evidence for a causal relationship between surrounding greenness and mental health in adults, whereas the evidence was inadequate in children. The evidence was also inadequate for the other exposures evaluated (access to green spaces, quality of green spaces, and blue spaces) in both adults and children. The main limitation was the limited number of studies, together with the heterogeneity regarding exposure assessment. Given the increase in mental health problems and the current rapid urbanization worldwide, results of the present systematic review should be taken into account in future urban planning. However, further research is needed to provide more consistent evidence and more detailed information on the mechanisms and the characteristics of the green and blue spaces that promote better mental health. We provide recommendations for future studies in order to provide consistent and evidence-based recommendations for policy makers.
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3.

Diagnóstico da disposição final dos resíduos sólidos urbanos na região da Associação dos Municípios do Alto Irani (AMAI), Santa Catarina/ Diagnosis of the final disposal of urban solid wastes in the region of the Association of the Cities at Alto Irani (AMAI), Santa Catarina State

França, Rosiléa Garcia; Ruaro, Édina Cristina Rodrigues
| Idioma(s): Portugués
O objetivo desse estudo foi diagnosticar o destino dos resíduos sólidos urbanos na região da AMAI (SC), composta por catorze municípios. Foram aplicados questionários às prefeituras e realizadas visitas nos municípios para mapear tanto lixões ativos e desativados como aterros controlados e sanitários. Os parâmetros utilizados foram: existência de cercas; tipo de cobertura; retirada dos resíduos antes da cobertura; proximidades com águas superficiais; presença de catadores ou animais; monitoramento e coleta de chorume e gás; distância de moradias e existência de coleta seletiva. A partir da pesquisa, foram localizados vinte e sete lixões desativados, sendo que dezoito deles receberam algum tipo de remediação; porém, em nenhum deles ocorreu de forma padrão. Detectou-se precariedade na remediação nos lixões desativados, pois a simples cobertura com terra não é suficiente, já que o material ali depositado continua poluindo através do chorume produzido. Atualmente, todos os municípios depositam os seus resíduos sólidos urbanos em aterros sanitários localizados em Xanxerê e Xaxim. Dos quatorze municípios, somente um possui coleta seletiva e ainda de forma precária. Atualmente, coleta-se 54,15 ton/dia de resíduos, totalizando-se uma média de 0,610 g/hab.dia de lixo, a um custo de R$ 1,78/hab para os cofres públicos mensalmente. The aim of this study was to carry out diagnosis about the destination given to the urban solid wastes in AMAI-SC region, which has fourteen cities. It was applied questionnaires to the city halls, and visits to map active and inactive dumps, controlled and sanitary landfill. It was investigated: the existence of fences, monitoring and collecting of gas and leachate, if they were next to the superficial waters, the presence of animals or collectors. It was considered, also, the distance of houses and/or urban mass and information about selective collection. It was found twenty and seven inactive dumps, where eighteen had received treatment. It was detected precariousness in remediation of all inactive dumps, because a single covering with land is not enough, therefore the material put there, keeps polluting through the production of lard and methane gas. Nowadays, all AMAI cities put their urban solid wastes in sanitary landfill found in Xanxerê and Xaxim. Among the fourteen cities, only one has selective collection, and in a precarious way, what reduces the useful life time of landfill, beyond being harmful to the environment. It is collected 54.15 tons/day of wastes, which sums 0.610 g/hab.day of waste, costing R$ 1.78 to the public coffers monthly.
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4.

Profile of noise pollution in Lucknow city and its impact on environment.

Kisku, G C; Sharma, Kailash; Kidwai, M M; Barman, S C; Khan, A H; Singh, Ramesh; Mishra, Divya; Bhargava, S K
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Automobiles, construction, festivals, factories, stations, diesel shades, garages and workshops are sources of noise. Vehicles are increasing enormously beyond the carrying capacity of the road. Study was carried out at 12 locations with sound level meter to assess day time and night time noise levels of Lucknow city. In residential areas, noise ranged between 67.7 to 78.9 and 52.9 to 56.4; in commercial cum traffic areas 74.8 to 84.2 and 68.2 to 74.9 and in industrial areas 76.9-77.2 and 72.2-73.1 dB(A) during day and night time respectively. Values were higher than their prescribed standards which may pose a significant impact on quality of life.
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6.

Urban natural environments as nature-based solutions for improved public health - A systematic review of reviews.

van den Bosch, M; Ode Sang, Å
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Increasing urbanisation, changing disease scenarios, and current predictions of climate change impacts require innovative strategies for providing healthy and sustainable cities, now and in the future. The recently coined concept, Nature-based solutions (NBS), is one such strategy referring to actions that are inspired by, supported by, or copied from nature, designed to address a range of environmental challenges. The objective with this article is to evaluate the evidence on public health benefits of exposure to natural environments and explore how this knowledge could be framed within the NBS concept. We conducted a systematic review of reviews following established methodology, including keyword search in several databases, predefined inclusion criteria, and a data extraction in accordance with the PICOS structure. We reviewed literature on associations between public health and natural environments in relation to pathways - sociobehavioural/cultural ecosystem services (e.g. stress and physical activity) and regulating ecosystem services (e.g. heat reduction) - or defined health outcomes (e.g. cardiovascular mortality). The results show that there is strong evidence for improved affect as well as on heat reduction from urban natural environments. These conditions may mediate the effect seen on cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related mortality by exposure to natural environments. By also reviewing existing literature on NBS and health, we phrase the results within the NBS context, providing guidelines on how public health and well-being could be integrated into implementation of NBS for resilient and liveable urban landscapes and health in a changing climate.
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7.

Landscape and health.

Sheather, Julian
| Idioma(s): Inglés
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8.

Changes in population susceptibility to heat and cold over time: assessing adaptation to climate change.

Arbuthnott, Katherine; Hajat, Shakoor; Heaviside, Clare; Vardoulakis, Sotiris
| Idioma(s): Inglés
BACKGROUND: In the context of a warming climate and increasing urbanisation (with the associated urban heat island effect), interest in understanding temperature related health effects is growing. Previous reviews have examined how the temperature-mortality relationship varies by geographical location. There have been no reviews examining the empirical evidence for changes in population susceptibility to the effects of heat and/or cold over time. The objective of this paper is to review studies which have specifically examined variations in temperature related mortality risks over the 20(th) and 21(st) centuries and determine whether population adaptation to heat and/or cold has occurred. METHODS: We searched five electronic databases combining search terms for three main concepts: temperature, health outcomes and changes in vulnerability or adaptation. Studies included were those which quantified the risk of heat related mortality with changing ambient temperature in a specific location over time, or those which compared mortality outcomes between two different extreme temperature events (heatwaves) in one location. RESULTS: The electronic searches returned 9183 titles and abstracts, of which eleven studies examining the effects of ambient temperature over time were included and six studies comparing the effect of different heatwaves at discrete time points were included. Of the eleven papers that quantified the risk of, or absolute heat related mortality over time, ten found a decrease in susceptibility over time of which five found the decrease to be significant. The magnitude of the decrease varied by location. Only two studies attempted to quantitatively attribute changes in susceptibility to specific adaptive measures and found no significant association between the risk of heat related mortality and air conditioning prevalence within or between cities over time. Four of the six papers examining effects of heatwaves found a decrease in expected mortality in later years. Five studies examined the risk of cold. In contrast to the changes in heat related mortality observed, only one found a significant decrease in cold related mortality in later time periods. CONCLUSIONS: There is evidence that across a number of different settings, population susceptibility to heat and heatwaves has been decreasing. These changes in heat related susceptibility have important implications for health impact assessments of future heat related risk. A similar decrease in cold related mortality was not shown. Adaptation to heat has implications for future planning, particularly in urban areas, with anticipated increases in temperature due to climate change.
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9.

Footbridges as elements for urban rehabilitation and renewal.

Siviero, Enzo; Martini, Viviana
| Idioma(s): Inglés
When a bridge is designed, we start from the basis that it is visible in all its parts. In actual fact, due to the position and speed of the observer, the bridge can be perceived partially and for a limited period of time. The area and time within which the bridge can be perceived are entities that can be quantified and, therefore, measured (Perceptive quantity). Italian legislation about infrastructures distinguishes between two forms of quality: internal, also referred to as technical performance and, more general, work function apply; and external, namely connected with the social-economic, environmental and landscape impact of the work. Footbridges make it possible to create closer relations between the user and the work, as walking on them implies moving at a slower pace. The aim of this paper was to understand how the perception of a footbridge can prove to be an effective knowledge base for planning, and an instrument for urban rehabilitation. This paper will also explore the ways in which existing footbridges can change the perception and the meaning of a place. It will also investigate the connection between the design of footbridges and planning tools. The results involve the study of the effects that a footbridge may have on the urban landscape, taking the relationship between the internal and external quality of the work into consideration.
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10.

Diagnóstico da disposição final dos resíduos sólidos urbanos na região da Associação dos Municípios do Alto Irani (AMAI), Santa Catarina./ [Diagnosis of the final disposal of urban solid wastes in the region of the Association of the Cities at Alto Irani (AMAI), Santa Catarina State].

França, Rosiléa Garcia; Ruaro, Edina Cristina Rodrigues
| Idioma(s): Portugués
The aim of this study was to carry out diagnosis about the destination given to the urban solid wastes in AMAI-SC region, which has fourteen cities. It was applied questionnaires to the city halls, and visits to map active and inactive dumps, controlled and sanitary landfill. It was investigated: the existence of fences, monitoring and collecting of gas and leachate, if they were next to the superficial waters, the presence of animals or collectors. It was considered, also, the distance of houses and/or urban mass and information about selective collection. It was found twenty and seven inactive dumps, where eighteen had received treatment. It was detected precariousness in remediation of all inactive dumps, because a single covering with land is not enough, therefore the material put there, keeps polluting through the production of lard and methane gas. Nowadays, all AMAI cities put their urban solid wastes in sanitary landfill found in Xanxerê and Xaxim. Among the fourteen cities, only one has selective collection, and in a precarious way, what reduces the useful life time of landfill, beyond being harmful to the environment. It is collected 54.15 tons/day of wastes, which sums 0.610 g/hab.day of waste, costing R$ 1.78 to the public coffers monthly.
Resultados  1-10 de 2.485