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1.

Profile of noise pollution in Lucknow city and its impact on environment.

Kisku, G C; Sharma, Kailash; Kidwai, M M; Barman, S C; Khan, A H; Singh, Ramesh; Mishra, Divya; Bhargava, S K
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Automobiles, construction, festivals, factories, stations, diesel shades, garages and workshops are sources of noise. Vehicles are increasing enormously beyond the carrying capacity of the road. Study was carried out at 12 locations with sound level meter to assess day time and night time noise levels of Lucknow city. In residential areas, noise ranged between 67.7 to 78.9 and 52.9 to 56.4; in commercial cum traffic areas 74.8 to 84.2 and 68.2 to 74.9 and in industrial areas 76.9-77.2 and 72.2-73.1 dB(A) during day and night time respectively. Values were higher than their prescribed standards which may pose a significant impact on quality of life.
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2.

Diagnóstico da disposição final dos resíduos sólidos urbanos na região da Associação dos Municípios do Alto Irani (AMAI), Santa Catarina/ Diagnosis of the final disposal of urban solid wastes in the region of the Association of the Cities at Alto Irani (AMAI), Santa Catarina State

França, Rosiléa Garcia; Ruaro, Édina Cristina Rodrigues
| Idioma(s): Portugués
O objetivo desse estudo foi diagnosticar o destino dos resíduos sólidos urbanos na região da AMAI (SC), composta por catorze municípios. Foram aplicados questionários às prefeituras e realizadas visitas nos municípios para mapear tanto lixões ativos e desativados como aterros controlados e sanitários. Os parâmetros utilizados foram: existência de cercas; tipo de cobertura; retirada dos resíduos antes da cobertura; proximidades com águas superficiais; presença de catadores ou animais; monitoramento e coleta de chorume e gás; distância de moradias e existência de coleta seletiva. A partir da pesquisa, foram localizados vinte e sete lixões desativados, sendo que dezoito deles receberam algum tipo de remediação; porém, em nenhum deles ocorreu de forma padrão. Detectou-se precariedade na remediação nos lixões desativados, pois a simples cobertura com terra não é suficiente, já que o material ali depositado continua poluindo através do chorume produzido. Atualmente, todos os municípios depositam os seus resíduos sólidos urbanos em aterros sanitários localizados em Xanxerê e Xaxim. Dos quatorze municípios, somente um possui coleta seletiva e ainda de forma precária. Atualmente, coleta-se 54,15 ton/dia de resíduos, totalizando-se uma média de 0,610 g/hab.dia de lixo, a um custo de R$ 1,78/hab para os cofres públicos mensalmente. The aim of this study was to carry out diagnosis about the destination given to the urban solid wastes in AMAI-SC region, which has fourteen cities. It was applied questionnaires to the city halls, and visits to map active and inactive dumps, controlled and sanitary landfill. It was investigated: the existence of fences, monitoring and collecting of gas and leachate, if they were next to the superficial waters, the presence of animals or collectors. It was considered, also, the distance of houses and/or urban mass and information about selective collection. It was found twenty and seven inactive dumps, where eighteen had received treatment. It was detected precariousness in remediation of all inactive dumps, because a single covering with land is not enough, therefore the material put there, keeps polluting through the production of lard and methane gas. Nowadays, all AMAI cities put their urban solid wastes in sanitary landfill found in Xanxerê and Xaxim. Among the fourteen cities, only one has selective collection, and in a precarious way, what reduces the useful life time of landfill, beyond being harmful to the environment. It is collected 54.15 tons/day of wastes, which sums 0.610 g/hab.day of waste, costing R$ 1.78 to the public coffers monthly.
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4.

Diagnóstico da disposição final dos resíduos sólidos urbanos na região da Associação dos Municípios do Alto Irani (AMAI), Santa Catarina./ [Diagnosis of the final disposal of urban solid wastes in the region of the Association of the Cities at Alto Irani (AMAI), Santa Catarina State].

França, Rosiléa Garcia; Ruaro, Edina Cristina Rodrigues
| Idioma(s): Portugués
The aim of this study was to carry out diagnosis about the destination given to the urban solid wastes in AMAI-SC region, which has fourteen cities. It was applied questionnaires to the city halls, and visits to map active and inactive dumps, controlled and sanitary landfill. It was investigated: the existence of fences, monitoring and collecting of gas and leachate, if they were next to the superficial waters, the presence of animals or collectors. It was considered, also, the distance of houses and/or urban mass and information about selective collection. It was found twenty and seven inactive dumps, where eighteen had received treatment. It was detected precariousness in remediation of all inactive dumps, because a single covering with land is not enough, therefore the material put there, keeps polluting through the production of lard and methane gas. Nowadays, all AMAI cities put their urban solid wastes in sanitary landfill found in Xanxerê and Xaxim. Among the fourteen cities, only one has selective collection, and in a precarious way, what reduces the useful life time of landfill, beyond being harmful to the environment. It is collected 54.15 tons/day of wastes, which sums 0.610 g/hab.day of waste, costing R$ 1.78 to the public coffers monthly.
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5.

Indicatori ambientali in dieci città italiane (2001-2005): i dati di qualità dell'aria per la sorveglianza epidemiologica./ [Environmental indicators in ten Italian cities (2001-2005): the air quality data for epidemiological surveillance].

Berti, Giovanna; Chiusolo, Monica; Grechi, Daniele; Grosa, Mauro; Rognoni, Magda; Tessari, Roberta; Pacelli, Barbara; Scarnato, Corrado; Mallone, Sandra; Vigotti, Maria Angela; Stafoggia, Massimo; Primerano, Roberto; Accetta, Gabriele; Dessì, Maria Patrizia; Cernigliaro, Achille; De'Donato, Francesca; Zanini, Gabriele; Forastiere, Francesco
| Idioma(s): Italiano
OBJECTIVE: to produce environmental indicators suitable for an epidemiological surveillance in 10 Italian cities part of the EpiAir Project (2001-2005). METHODS: the environmental parameters that correlate to relevant health effects are the particles with diameters less than or equal to 10 micrometers (PM10), the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and the ozone (O3). The necessary meteorological data are: temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure and apparent temperature.We have identified some criteria to select monitoring stations and have taken standard methods of calculation to produce environmental indicators starting from the daily data available after closely evaluating the completeness of the existing data. Furthermore, we have checked the homogeneity of the selected data to ensure that it represents the population's exposure. RESULTS: close examination of descriptive statistics shows a critical situation of the considered pollutants. The analysis of the yearly state underlines for PM10 values higher than 40 microg/m3 in the area of Mestre-Venice and in Milan, Turin, Bologna e Taranto. For NO2, values are consistently above 40 microg/m3 in Milan, Turin, Bologna, Florence, Rome and Palermo. For ozone, the concentrations were stable, with the exception of Summer 2003 when we recorded, on average, an increase of 13% compared to the mean value estimated for the ten cities during the study period, especially in Mestre-Venice, Turin and Palermo. CONCLUSIONS: it is important to ensure the consistency of the methods and instruments in environmental monitoring. To evaluate health effects and perform interventions over the longterm, it is therefore fundamental that the data be homogenous, especially during the periodic reorganizations and rationalizations of air quality management. It is also necessary to include daily meteorological data that influence pollutant dispersion and population health status.
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6.

Influence of new town development on the urban heat island-the case of the Bundang area.

Song, Young-Bae
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Five new towns have been developed around the Seoul metropolitan area since 1996. However, these new towns generate lots of traffic and related problems in the areas including those new towns and Seoul as a result of increases in population and a lack of ecological-self-sufficiency. Currently, construction of another new town is under deliberation, and what should be a major consider is the notion that the new town be located within a wide, green zone. Many studies have revealed that green space can play an important role in improving urban eco-meteorological capability and air quality. In order to analyze the urban heat island which will be created by the new urban development, and to investigate the local thermal environment and its negative effects caused by a change of land use type and urbanization, Landsat TM images were used for extraction of urban surface temperature according to changes of land use over the last 15 years. These data are analyzed together with digital land use and topographic information. As a study result, it was found the urban heat island of the study area from 1985 to 1999 rapidly developed which showed a difference of mean temperature above + 2.0. Before the Bundang new town construction the temperature of the residential area was the same as a forest, but during the new town construction in 1991 analysis revealed the creation of an urban heat island. The temperature of a forest whose size is over 50% of the investigation area was lowest, and thus the presence of a forest is believed to have a direct cooling effect on the urban environment and its surroundings. The mean temperature of the residential and commercial areas in the study was found to be + 4.5 higher than the forest, and therefore this part of land use is believed to be the main factor causing the temperature increase of the urban heat island.
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7.

Elektromagnitnaia sostavliaiushchaia sovremennoi urbanizirovannoi sredy./ [Electromagnetic components of a modern urbanized environment].

Bobrakov, S N; Kartashev, A G
| Idioma(s):
The investigations of intensity of electromagnetic field in the range of frequencies 30 MGz-300 GGz were carried out in Tomsk. The percentage contribution of every frequency subrange in to total intensity electromagnetic field of Tomsk was estimated. So for frequency range 30-100 MGz it corresponds to 4.3%; for 100-200 MGz--7.4%; for 200-300 MGz--4.6% and 300 MGz-300 GGz corresponds to 83.7%. Thus, the investigations of a level of electromagnetic field of an anthropogenous origin allowed estimation of the integrated level of electromagnetic field in the range of frequencies 30 MGz-300 GGz and construction of the spatial distribution of an electrical component of the field, and also revealing the basic sources of electromagnetic pollution.
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8.

An effective public health program to reduce urban heat islands in Québec, Canada/ Programa eficaz de salud pública para reducir las islas de calor urbano en Québec, Canada

Beaudoin, Mélanie; Gosselin, Pierre
| Idioma(s): Inglés
In 2005, the Government of the Province of Québec, Canada, adopted the Climate Change Action Plan for 2006 – 2012. The Institut national de santé publique du Québec (National Institute of Public Health of Québec), charged with implementing the health adaptation component of the Plan, worked to mitigate urban heat islands (UHI) by funding and evaluating 40 pilot projects. These projects explored different methods of fighting UHIs by greening cities in a participative and mobilizing approach led mainly by non-governmental organizations and municipalities. An assessment of temperatures before and after implementing various methods demonstrated that some actions enabled significant gains of coolness and more efficiently mitigated heat (reduction of concrete/asphalt surfaces, increasing vegetation, etc.). An assessment of quality of life showed that projects were positively received by users, especially by those living in vulnerable situations. A lifecycle analysis showed that from the environmental perspective, UHI mitigation measures that do not require fertilization or maintenance are preferable. Finally, communication efforts that raise awareness of UHI and mitigation are of significant importance to program success. En el 2005, el Gobierno de la provincia de Québec, Canadá, adoptó un plan de acción sobre el cambio climático para el período del 2006 al 2012. El Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública de Québec (Institut national de santé publique du Québec), encargado de la adaptación del plan para proteger la salud humana, dio un paso para mitigar las islas de calor urbanas (ICU) mediante el financiamiento y la evaluación de 40 proyectos piloto. En estos proyectos se exploraron diferentes métodos para combatir las ICU a base de aumentar las áreas verdes con arreglo a un enfoque participativo y movilizador impulsado principalmente por las organizaciones no gubernamentales y los municipios. Cuando se examinaron las temperaturas antes y después de aplicar distintos métodos, se observó que algunos habían llevado a un enfriamiento ambiental apreciable y que eran más eficientes para aliviar el calor (reducir las superficies de concreto y asfalto, plantar vegetación, y demás). Una evaluación enfocada en la calidad de vida indicó que los proyectos tuvieron buena acogida entre los usuarios, sobre todo los que vivían en situaciones de vulnerabilidad. Un análisis basado en el ciclo vital demostró que, desde el punto de vista ambiental, las medidas para la mitigación de las ICU que no requieren abono ni mantenimiento son las más aconsejables. Por último, las iniciativas de comunicación orientadas a sensibilizar al público en torno a las ICU y su mitigación son muy importantes para lograr que los programas rindan buenos resultados.
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9.

Saúde coletiva, resíduos sólidos urbanos e os catadores de lixo./ [Urban solid residues, garbage collectors and public health].

Siqueira, Mônica Maria; Moraes, Maria Silvia de
| Idioma(s): Portugués
The article approaches the issues of environmental production and the generation of urban solid residues, in particular the environment and health concept while social representation. From a bibliographical revision it argues the incorporation of the themes of health and environment in the practical field of knowledge and of interconnection with the Public Health. In this context it associates the question of the social exclusion generated by the form of production and consumption of the after-modern society, introducing the garbage collectors as a vulnerable population group.
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10.

Detection of toxoplasmosis in environmental samples at a wet market of a capital city centre.

Nimir, Amal R; Linn, Tang Cher
| Idioma(s): Inglés
The local Chow Kit market is the largest wet market in the city of Kuala Lumpur. It is very close to the biggest government hospital in the city centre. However, the level of cleanliness in this area is always questionable and a matter of concern. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of T. gondii oocyst in water samples used by hawkers in that market and tissue cysts in rats' brains captured from the same area. Water samples were taken to the parasitology laboratory at the National Universtiy of MalaysiaUniversity and a sugar flotation concentration method was used. Supernatant microscopical examination was then performed. A total of 752 slides were screened for the presence of T. gondii oocyst. A hundred rats wandering in the same area were also captured by the hawkers using mousetraps. After each animal was sacrificed, and an electric microtome was used to cut out serial sections 5 microm thick from the rat brains. The de-waxed tissue sections were stained by the progressive Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stain for microscopical examination. A total of 1000 slides were screened under a light microscope to detect the presence of T. gondii brain cysts. All the water samples were found to be negative for T. gondii oocyst. Out of the 100 rats captured, three rats were found to possess T. gondii cysts in their brains. Water samples reflect minimal or no solid food contamination, while the 3% of positive brain cysts influence the researchers to broaden their investigations for future projects.
Resultados  1-10 de 2.298