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1.

Challenges and Opportunities for Urban Environmental Health and Sustainability: the HEALTHY-POLIS initiative.

Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Dear, Keith; Wilkinson, Paul
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Cities around the world face many environmental health challenges including contamination of air, water and soil, traffic congestion and noise, and poor housing conditions exacerbated by unsustainable urban development and climate change. Integrated assessment of these risks offers opportunities for holistic, low carbon solutions in the urban environment that can bring multiple benefits for public health. The Healthy-Polis consortium aims to protect and promote urban health through multi-disciplinary, policy-relevant research on urban environmental health and sustainability. We are doing this by promoting improved methods of health risk assessment, facilitating international collaboration, contributing to the training of research scientists and students, and engaging with key stakeholders in government, local authorities, international organisations, industry and academia. A major focus of the consortium is to promote and support international research projects coordinated between two or more countries. The disciplinary areas represented in the consortium are many and varied, including environmental epidemiology, modelling and exposure assessment, system dynamics, health impact assessment, multi-criteria decision analysis, and other quantitative and qualitative approaches. This Healthy-Polis special issue presents a range of case studies and reviews that illustrate the need for a systems-based understanding of the urban environment.
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2.

Diagnóstico da disposição final dos resíduos sólidos urbanos na região da Associação dos Municípios do Alto Irani (AMAI), Santa Catarina/ Diagnosis of the final disposal of urban solid wastes in the region of the Association of the Cities at Alto Irani (AMAI), Santa Catarina State

França, Rosiléa Garcia; Ruaro, Édina Cristina Rodrigues
| Idioma(s): Portugués
O objetivo desse estudo foi diagnosticar o destino dos resíduos sólidos urbanos na região da AMAI (SC), composta por catorze municípios. Foram aplicados questionários às prefeituras e realizadas visitas nos municípios para mapear tanto lixões ativos e desativados como aterros controlados e sanitários. Os parâmetros utilizados foram: existência de cercas; tipo de cobertura; retirada dos resíduos antes da cobertura; proximidades com águas superficiais; presença de catadores ou animais; monitoramento e coleta de chorume e gás; distância de moradias e existência de coleta seletiva. A partir da pesquisa, foram localizados vinte e sete lixões desativados, sendo que dezoito deles receberam algum tipo de remediação; porém, em nenhum deles ocorreu de forma padrão. Detectou-se precariedade na remediação nos lixões desativados, pois a simples cobertura com terra não é suficiente, já que o material ali depositado continua poluindo através do chorume produzido. Atualmente, todos os municípios depositam os seus resíduos sólidos urbanos em aterros sanitários localizados em Xanxerê e Xaxim. Dos quatorze municípios, somente um possui coleta seletiva e ainda de forma precária. Atualmente, coleta-se 54,15 ton/dia de resíduos, totalizando-se uma média de 0,610 g/hab.dia de lixo, a um custo de R$ 1,78/hab para os cofres públicos mensalmente. The aim of this study was to carry out diagnosis about the destination given to the urban solid wastes in AMAI-SC region, which has fourteen cities. It was applied questionnaires to the city halls, and visits to map active and inactive dumps, controlled and sanitary landfill. It was investigated: the existence of fences, monitoring and collecting of gas and leachate, if they were next to the superficial waters, the presence of animals or collectors. It was considered, also, the distance of houses and/or urban mass and information about selective collection. It was found twenty and seven inactive dumps, where eighteen had received treatment. It was detected precariousness in remediation of all inactive dumps, because a single covering with land is not enough, therefore the material put there, keeps polluting through the production of lard and methane gas. Nowadays, all AMAI cities put their urban solid wastes in sanitary landfill found in Xanxerê and Xaxim. Among the fourteen cities, only one has selective collection, and in a precarious way, what reduces the useful life time of landfill, beyond being harmful to the environment. It is collected 54.15 tons/day of wastes, which sums 0.610 g/hab.day of waste, costing R$ 1.78 to the public coffers monthly.
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4.

Changes in population susceptibility to heat and cold over time: assessing adaptation to climate change.

Arbuthnott, Katherine; Hajat, Shakoor; Heaviside, Clare; Vardoulakis, Sotiris
| Idioma(s): Inglés
BACKGROUND: In the context of a warming climate and increasing urbanisation (with the associated urban heat island effect), interest in understanding temperature related health effects is growing. Previous reviews have examined how the temperature-mortality relationship varies by geographical location. There have been no reviews examining the empirical evidence for changes in population susceptibility to the effects of heat and/or cold over time. The objective of this paper is to review studies which have specifically examined variations in temperature related mortality risks over the 20(th) and 21(st) centuries and determine whether population adaptation to heat and/or cold has occurred. METHODS: We searched five electronic databases combining search terms for three main concepts: temperature, health outcomes and changes in vulnerability or adaptation. Studies included were those which quantified the risk of heat related mortality with changing ambient temperature in a specific location over time, or those which compared mortality outcomes between two different extreme temperature events (heatwaves) in one location. RESULTS: The electronic searches returned 9183 titles and abstracts, of which eleven studies examining the effects of ambient temperature over time were included and six studies comparing the effect of different heatwaves at discrete time points were included. Of the eleven papers that quantified the risk of, or absolute heat related mortality over time, ten found a decrease in susceptibility over time of which five found the decrease to be significant. The magnitude of the decrease varied by location. Only two studies attempted to quantitatively attribute changes in susceptibility to specific adaptive measures and found no significant association between the risk of heat related mortality and air conditioning prevalence within or between cities over time. Four of the six papers examining effects of heatwaves found a decrease in expected mortality in later years. Five studies examined the risk of cold. In contrast to the changes in heat related mortality observed, only one found a significant decrease in cold related mortality in later time periods. CONCLUSIONS: There is evidence that across a number of different settings, population susceptibility to heat and heatwaves has been decreasing. These changes in heat related susceptibility have important implications for health impact assessments of future heat related risk. A similar decrease in cold related mortality was not shown. Adaptation to heat has implications for future planning, particularly in urban areas, with anticipated increases in temperature due to climate change.
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5.

Saúde coletiva, resíduos sólidos urbanos e os catadores de lixo/ Urban solid residues, garbage collectors and public health

Siqueira, Mônica Maria; Moraes, Maria Silvia de
| Idioma(s): Portugués
O artigo aborda a problemática ambiental da produção e da geração de resíduos sólidos urbanos, destacando o conceito de saúde e de ambiente enquanto representação social. A partir de uma revisão bibliográfica, discute a incorporação da temática saúde e ambiente no campo de conhecimento e práticas de interconexão com a saúde coletiva. Associa nesse contexto a questão da exclusão social gerada pela forma de produção e de consumo da sociedade pós-moderna, introduzindo os catadores de lixo, grupo populacional vulnerável. The article approaches the issues of environmental production and the generation of urban solid residues, in particular the environment and health concept while social representation. From a bibliographical revision it argues the incorporation of the themes of health and environment in the practical field of knowledge and of interconnection with the Public Health. In this context it associates the question of the social exclusion generated by the form of production and consumption of the after-modern society, introducing the garbage collectors as a vulnerable population group.
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6.

Characteristics of the built environment associated with leisure-time physical activity among adults in Bogotá, Colombia: a multilevel study

Gomez, Luis F; Sarmiento, Olga L; Parra, Diana C; Schmid, Thomas L; Pratt, Michael; Jacoby, Enrique; Neiman, Andrea; Cervero, Robert; Mosquera, Janeth; Rutt, Candance; Ardila, Mauricio; Pinzón, José D
| Idioma(s): Inglés
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7.

Viajes cortos, actividad física y emisiones vehiculares en la ciudad de Buenos Aires/ Short trips, physical activity and vehicle emissions in the city of Buenos Aires/ Viajens curtas, atividade física e emissões vehiculares na cidade de Buenos Aires

Farinola, Martín Gustavo
| Idioma(s): Español
Objetivo: Estimar el potencial de aumento de actividad física y de reducción de emisiones vehiculares cambiando a modos activos las etapas cortas realizadas en modos motorizados en la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires. Materiales y métodos: Estudio descriptivo y transversal. En octubre de 2012 se realizó una encuesta de origen/destino con entrevistador cara a cara a una muestra aleatoria de habitantes adultos de la Comuna 7 de Buenos Aires (n = 302). Se recogió información de las personas y de los viajes que realizaron el día previo a la entrevista. Las etapas cortas fueron aquellas cuyas distancias resultaron iguales o inferiores al percentil 85 de las distancias efectivamente caminadas y pedaleadas. Resultados: La distancia de la etapa fue la variable mayormente asociada con la utilización de modos activos de transporte. Los varones utilizaron más la bicicleta que las mujeres y las mujeres caminaron más etapas que los varones. Ninguna etapa corta con base en el trabajo se realizó en bicicleta. Si se cambiaran a modos activos las etapas cortas de distancia caminable realizadas en modos motorizados la cantidad de participantes que alcanzaría las recomendaciones diarias de actividad física para la salud sería del 7% y las emisiones vehiculares se reducirían entre 3,1% y 9,1%, dependiendo del contaminante del que se trate. Para el caso de las etapas de distancia pedaleable un 36,6% de los participantes alcanzaría recomendaciones diarias de actividad física y entre un 27,7% y 50,5% de las emisiones vehiculares se evitarían. Conclusiones: En comparación con el potencial de mejora de otras medidas se concluye que existe un potencial sustancial de aumento de actividad física y de reducción de emisiones vehiculares en Buenos Aires cambiando a modos activos las etapas cortas realizadas en modos motorizados, especialmente para el caso de las etapas de distancia pedaleable. Resta estudiar qué porción de etapas cortas son factibles de cambiar a modos activos de transporte. Objective: To estimate the potential for physical activity increase and vehicle emissions reduction shifting to active modes those short trips done on motorized transportation in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires. Materials and Methods: Descriptive, cross-sectional study. In October 2012 an origin/destination survey was conducted to a random sample of adult inhabitants of the Commune 7 of Buenos Aires (n = 302) with face to face interviewer. Information of people and trips they made the day before the interview was collected. Short trips were those whose distances were at or below the 85th percentile of distances actually walked and cycled. Results: distance of the trip was the variable mostly associated with active modes of transportation. Males used bicycle more than women and women walked more trips than men. None of the short trips based on work was made by bicycle. If these were changed to active modes, the short trips of walkable distance done in motorized modes, the amount of participants that would follow the daily recommendations of physical activity for health would be 7% and vehicle emissions would reduce between 3.1% and 9.1% depending on the type of pollutant. In the case of bikeable distance short trips, 36.6% of participants would achieve daily physical activity recommendations and between 27.7% and 50.5% of vehicle emissions would be avoided. Conclusions: In comparison with the improvement potential of other actions, it can be concluded that there is a substantial potential for increased physical activity and reduced vehicle emissions in Buenos Aires shifting short trips made on motorized modes to active modes, especially for bikeable distance short trips. It is necessary to study which portion of short trips is feasible to switch to active transportation modes. Objetivo: Estimar o potencial de aumento de atividade física e de redução de emissões veiculares cambiando a modos ativos as etapas curtas realizadas em modos motorizados na Cidade Autônoma de Buenos Aires. Materiais e métodos: Estudo descritivo e transversal. Em outubro de 2012 se realizou uma enquete de origem/destino com entrevistador cara a cara a uma amostra aleatória de habitantes adultos da Comuna 7 de Buenos Aires (n = 302). Coletou se informação das pessoas e das viagens que realizaram o dia prévio à entrevista. As etapas curtas foram aquelas cujas distancias resultaram iguais ou inferiores do percentil 85 das distancias efetivamente caminhadas e pedaladas. Resultados: A distancia da etapa foi a variável, maiormente associada com a utilização de modos ativos de transporte. Os varões utilizaram mais a bicicleta que as mulheres e as mulheres caminharam mais etapas que os varões. Nenhuma etapa curta com base no trabalho se realizou em bicicleta. Sim se cambiaram a modos ativos as etapas curtas de distancia para caminhar realizadas em modos motorizados a quantidade de participantes que alcançariam as recomendações diárias de atividade física para a saúde seria de 7% e as emissões veiculares se reduziriam entre 3,1% e 9,1%, depende do tipo de contaminante do que se trate. Para o caso das etapas de distancia pedaláveis um 36,6% dos participantes alcançaria recomendações diárias de atividade física e entre um 27,7% e 50,5% das emissões veiculares se evitariam. Conclusões: Em comparação com o potencial de melhora de outras medidas se conclui que existe um potencial substancial de aumento de atividade física e de redução de emissões veiculares em Buenos Aires cambiando a modos ativos as etapas curtas realizadas em modos motorizados, especialmente para o caso das etapas de distancia pedaláveis. Resta estudar que porções de etapas curtas são fatíveis de cambiar a modos ativos de transporte.
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8.

Advancing Sustainability through Urban Green Space: Cultural Ecosystem Services, Equity, and Social Determinants of Health.

Jennings, Viniece; Larson, Lincoln; Yun, Jessica
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Urban green spaces provide an array of benefits, or ecosystem services, that support our physical, psychological, and social health. In many cases, however, these benefits are not equitably distributed across diverse urban populations. In this paper, we explore relationships between cultural ecosystem services provided by urban green space and the social determinants of health outlined in the United States Healthy People 2020 initiative. Specifically, we: (1) explore connections between cultural ecosystem services and social determinants of health; (2) examine cultural ecosystem services as nature-based health amenities to promote social equity; and (3) recommend areas for future research examining links between urban green space and public health within the context of environmental justice.
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9.

Health and climate related ecosystem services provided by street trees in the urban environment.

Salmond, Jennifer A; Tadaki, Marc; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Arbuthnott, Katherine; Coutts, Andrew; Demuzere, Matthias; Dirks, Kim N; Heaviside, Clare; Lim, Shanon; Macintyre, Helen; McInnes, Rachel N; Wheeler, Benedict W
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Urban tree planting initiatives are being actively promoted as a planning tool to enable urban areas to adapt to and mitigate against climate change, enhance urban sustainability and improve human health and well-being. However, opportunities for creating new areas of green space within cities are often limited and tree planting initiatives may be constrained to kerbside locations. At this scale, the net impact of trees on human health and the local environment is less clear, and generalised approaches for evaluating their impact are not well developed.In this review, we use an urban ecosystems services framework to evaluate the direct, and locally-generated, ecosystems services and disservices provided by street trees. We focus our review on the services of major importance to human health and well-being which include 'climate regulation', 'air quality regulation' and 'aesthetics and cultural services'. These are themes that are commonly used to justify new street tree or street tree retention initiatives. We argue that current scientific understanding of the impact of street trees on human health and the urban environment has been limited by predominantly regional-scale reductionist approaches which consider vegetation generally and/or single out individual services or impacts without considering the wider synergistic impacts of street trees on urban ecosystems. This can lead planners and policymakers towards decision making based on single parameter optimisation strategies which may be problematic when a single intervention offers different outcomes and has multiple effects and potential trade-offs in different places.We suggest that a holistic approach is required to evaluate the services and disservices provided by street trees at different scales. We provide information to guide decision makers and planners in their attempts to evaluate the value of vegetation in their local setting. We show that by ensuring that the specific aim of the intervention, the scale of the desired biophysical effect and an awareness of a range of impacts guide the choice of i) tree species, ii) location and iii) density of tree placement, street trees can be an important tool for urban planners and designers in developing resilient and resourceful cities in an era of climatic change.
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10.

Droplet Characterization and Penetration of an Ultra-Low Volume Mosquito Adulticide Spray Targeting the Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus, within Urban and Suburban Environments of Northeastern USA.

Faraji, Ary; Unlu, Isik; Crepeau, Taryn; Healy, Sean; Crans, Scott; Lizarraga, Griffith; Fonseca, Dina; Gaugler, Randy
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Adult control of Aedes albopictus via ultra-low volume is difficult because this species occurs primarily in peridomestic habitats where obstacles such as buildings and vegetation can disrupt spray plumes and droplet dispersion. We determined droplet penetration and characterization of a pyrethroid adulticide applied from the ground at mid (46.77 ml/ha) and maximum (93.53 ml/ha) label rates within cryptic habitats of urban and suburban environments. Droplets were collected from all habitats, with no significant differences detected between locations within the same application rate or collection method. No differences were detected in droplet densities (drops per mm2) between rates within urban environments, but more droplets were collected in urban (149.93 ± 11.07 SE) than suburban sites (114.37 ± 11.32) at the maximum label rate (P = 0.003). The excellent penetration of aerosols into cryptic habitats of an urban site was likely due to the shorter spray paths afforded by our network of roads and alleys. Mid label rates displayed similar droplet density values as maximum label rates in urban areas, indicating that lower rates may be used effectively to reduce costs, lessen non-target effects, and increase environmental stewardship. Advances in formulations and technology are driving changes in adulticide applications, leading to use of the minimum effective dose for maximum efficacy, precision, and accountability.
Resultados  1-10 de 332