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1.

Challenges and Opportunities for Urban Environmental Health and Sustainability: the HEALTHY-POLIS initiative.

Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Dear, Keith; Wilkinson, Paul
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Cities around the world face many environmental health challenges including contamination of air, water and soil, traffic congestion and noise, and poor housing conditions exacerbated by unsustainable urban development and climate change. Integrated assessment of these risks offers opportunities for holistic, low carbon solutions in the urban environment that can bring multiple benefits for public health. The Healthy-Polis consortium aims to protect and promote urban health through multi-disciplinary, policy-relevant research on urban environmental health and sustainability. We are doing this by promoting improved methods of health risk assessment, facilitating international collaboration, contributing to the training of research scientists and students, and engaging with key stakeholders in government, local authorities, international organisations, industry and academia. A major focus of the consortium is to promote and support international research projects coordinated between two or more countries. The disciplinary areas represented in the consortium are many and varied, including environmental epidemiology, modelling and exposure assessment, system dynamics, health impact assessment, multi-criteria decision analysis, and other quantitative and qualitative approaches. This Healthy-Polis special issue presents a range of case studies and reviews that illustrate the need for a systems-based understanding of the urban environment.
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2.

Profile of noise pollution in Lucknow city and its impact on environment.

Kisku, G C; Sharma, Kailash; Kidwai, M M; Barman, S C; Khan, A H; Singh, Ramesh; Mishra, Divya; Bhargava, S K
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Automobiles, construction, festivals, factories, stations, diesel shades, garages and workshops are sources of noise. Vehicles are increasing enormously beyond the carrying capacity of the road. Study was carried out at 12 locations with sound level meter to assess day time and night time noise levels of Lucknow city. In residential areas, noise ranged between 67.7 to 78.9 and 52.9 to 56.4; in commercial cum traffic areas 74.8 to 84.2 and 68.2 to 74.9 and in industrial areas 76.9-77.2 and 72.2-73.1 dB(A) during day and night time respectively. Values were higher than their prescribed standards which may pose a significant impact on quality of life.
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3.

Diagnóstico da disposição final dos resíduos sólidos urbanos na região da Associação dos Municípios do Alto Irani (AMAI), Santa Catarina/ Diagnosis of the final disposal of urban solid wastes in the region of the Association of the Cities at Alto Irani (AMAI), Santa Catarina State

França, Rosiléa Garcia; Ruaro, Édina Cristina Rodrigues
| Idioma(s): Portugués
O objetivo desse estudo foi diagnosticar o destino dos resíduos sólidos urbanos na região da AMAI (SC), composta por catorze municípios. Foram aplicados questionários às prefeituras e realizadas visitas nos municípios para mapear tanto lixões ativos e desativados como aterros controlados e sanitários. Os parâmetros utilizados foram: existência de cercas; tipo de cobertura; retirada dos resíduos antes da cobertura; proximidades com águas superficiais; presença de catadores ou animais; monitoramento e coleta de chorume e gás; distância de moradias e existência de coleta seletiva. A partir da pesquisa, foram localizados vinte e sete lixões desativados, sendo que dezoito deles receberam algum tipo de remediação; porém, em nenhum deles ocorreu de forma padrão. Detectou-se precariedade na remediação nos lixões desativados, pois a simples cobertura com terra não é suficiente, já que o material ali depositado continua poluindo através do chorume produzido. Atualmente, todos os municípios depositam os seus resíduos sólidos urbanos em aterros sanitários localizados em Xanxerê e Xaxim. Dos quatorze municípios, somente um possui coleta seletiva e ainda de forma precária. Atualmente, coleta-se 54,15 ton/dia de resíduos, totalizando-se uma média de 0,610 g/hab.dia de lixo, a um custo de R$ 1,78/hab para os cofres públicos mensalmente. The aim of this study was to carry out diagnosis about the destination given to the urban solid wastes in AMAI-SC region, which has fourteen cities. It was applied questionnaires to the city halls, and visits to map active and inactive dumps, controlled and sanitary landfill. It was investigated: the existence of fences, monitoring and collecting of gas and leachate, if they were next to the superficial waters, the presence of animals or collectors. It was considered, also, the distance of houses and/or urban mass and information about selective collection. It was found twenty and seven inactive dumps, where eighteen had received treatment. It was detected precariousness in remediation of all inactive dumps, because a single covering with land is not enough, therefore the material put there, keeps polluting through the production of lard and methane gas. Nowadays, all AMAI cities put their urban solid wastes in sanitary landfill found in Xanxerê and Xaxim. Among the fourteen cities, only one has selective collection, and in a precarious way, what reduces the useful life time of landfill, beyond being harmful to the environment. It is collected 54.15 tons/day of wastes, which sums 0.610 g/hab.day of waste, costing R$ 1.78 to the public coffers monthly.
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5.

Diagnóstico da disposição final dos resíduos sólidos urbanos na região da Associação dos Municípios do Alto Irani (AMAI), Santa Catarina./ [Diagnosis of the final disposal of urban solid wastes in the region of the Association of the Cities at Alto Irani (AMAI), Santa Catarina State].

França, Rosiléa Garcia; Ruaro, Edina Cristina Rodrigues
| Idioma(s): Portugués
The aim of this study was to carry out diagnosis about the destination given to the urban solid wastes in AMAI-SC region, which has fourteen cities. It was applied questionnaires to the city halls, and visits to map active and inactive dumps, controlled and sanitary landfill. It was investigated: the existence of fences, monitoring and collecting of gas and leachate, if they were next to the superficial waters, the presence of animals or collectors. It was considered, also, the distance of houses and/or urban mass and information about selective collection. It was found twenty and seven inactive dumps, where eighteen had received treatment. It was detected precariousness in remediation of all inactive dumps, because a single covering with land is not enough, therefore the material put there, keeps polluting through the production of lard and methane gas. Nowadays, all AMAI cities put their urban solid wastes in sanitary landfill found in Xanxerê and Xaxim. Among the fourteen cities, only one has selective collection, and in a precarious way, what reduces the useful life time of landfill, beyond being harmful to the environment. It is collected 54.15 tons/day of wastes, which sums 0.610 g/hab.day of waste, costing R$ 1.78 to the public coffers monthly.
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6.

Impatti ambientali delle ceneri e dei residui solidi prodotti dall'incenerimento di rifiuti urbani: rassegna bibliografica./ [Review on environmental impact of solid wastes produced by municipal urban waste incinerators].

Valerio, Federico
| Idioma(s): Italiano
Incinerators reduce urban waste volumes and recover energy by combustion, but produce important quantities of solid wastes: bottom ashes and fly ashes. The presence of toxic heavy metals and persistent organic compounds, both in bottom and in fly ash, require attention for their disposal and for proposed use in cement production or as filling material in road construction. Recent ecotoxicological studies on leachates obtained from ashes produced by urban waste incinerators suggest an urgent proposal of common more stringent regulations in all Union European countries for ashes disposal and use.
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7.

Changes in population susceptibility to heat and cold over time: assessing adaptation to climate change.

Arbuthnott, Katherine; Hajat, Shakoor; Heaviside, Clare; Vardoulakis, Sotiris
| Idioma(s): Inglés
BACKGROUND: In the context of a warming climate and increasing urbanisation (with the associated urban heat island effect), interest in understanding temperature related health effects is growing. Previous reviews have examined how the temperature-mortality relationship varies by geographical location. There have been no reviews examining the empirical evidence for changes in population susceptibility to the effects of heat and/or cold over time. The objective of this paper is to review studies which have specifically examined variations in temperature related mortality risks over the 20(th) and 21(st) centuries and determine whether population adaptation to heat and/or cold has occurred. METHODS: We searched five electronic databases combining search terms for three main concepts: temperature, health outcomes and changes in vulnerability or adaptation. Studies included were those which quantified the risk of heat related mortality with changing ambient temperature in a specific location over time, or those which compared mortality outcomes between two different extreme temperature events (heatwaves) in one location. RESULTS: The electronic searches returned 9183 titles and abstracts, of which eleven studies examining the effects of ambient temperature over time were included and six studies comparing the effect of different heatwaves at discrete time points were included. Of the eleven papers that quantified the risk of, or absolute heat related mortality over time, ten found a decrease in susceptibility over time of which five found the decrease to be significant. The magnitude of the decrease varied by location. Only two studies attempted to quantitatively attribute changes in susceptibility to specific adaptive measures and found no significant association between the risk of heat related mortality and air conditioning prevalence within or between cities over time. Four of the six papers examining effects of heatwaves found a decrease in expected mortality in later years. Five studies examined the risk of cold. In contrast to the changes in heat related mortality observed, only one found a significant decrease in cold related mortality in later time periods. CONCLUSIONS: There is evidence that across a number of different settings, population susceptibility to heat and heatwaves has been decreasing. These changes in heat related susceptibility have important implications for health impact assessments of future heat related risk. A similar decrease in cold related mortality was not shown. Adaptation to heat has implications for future planning, particularly in urban areas, with anticipated increases in temperature due to climate change.
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8.

Urban daytime traffic noise prediction models.

da Paz, Elaine Carvalho; Zannin, Paulo Henrique Trombetta
| Idioma(s): Inglés
An evaluation was made of the acoustic environment generated by an urban highway using in situ measurements. Based on the data collected, a mathematical model was designed for the main sound levels (L (eq), L (10), L (50), and L (90)) as a function of the correlation between sound levels and between the equivalent sound pressure level and traffic variables. Four valid groups of mathematical models were generated to calculate daytime sound levels, which were statistically validated. It was found that the new models can be considered as accurate as other models presented in the literature to assess and predict daytime traffic noise, and that they stand out and differ from the existing models described in the literature thanks to two characteristics, namely, their linearity and the application of class intervals.
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9.

Speed kills: the complex links between transport, lack of time and urban health.

Tranter, Paul Joseph
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Road safety experts understand the contribution of speed to the severity and frequency of road crashes. Yet, the impact of speed on health is far more subtle and pervasive than simply its effect on road safety. The emphasis in urban areas on increasing the speed and volume of car traffic contributes to ill-health through its impacts on local air pollution, greenhouse gas production, inactivity, obesity and social isolation. In addition to these impacts, a heavy reliance on cars as a supposedly 'fast' mode of transport consumes more time and money than a reliance on supposedly slower modes of transport (walking, cycling and public transport). Lack of time is a major reason why people do not engage in healthy behaviours. Using the concept of 'effective speed', this paper demonstrates that any attempt to 'save time' through increasing the speed of motorists is ultimately futile. Paradoxically, if planners wish to provide urban residents with more time for healthy behaviours (such as exercise and preparing healthy food), then, support for the 'slower' active modes of transport should be encouraged.
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10.

Influence of new town development on the urban heat island-the case of the Bundang area.

Song, Young-Bae
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Five new towns have been developed around the Seoul metropolitan area since 1996. However, these new towns generate lots of traffic and related problems in the areas including those new towns and Seoul as a result of increases in population and a lack of ecological-self-sufficiency. Currently, construction of another new town is under deliberation, and what should be a major consider is the notion that the new town be located within a wide, green zone. Many studies have revealed that green space can play an important role in improving urban eco-meteorological capability and air quality. In order to analyze the urban heat island which will be created by the new urban development, and to investigate the local thermal environment and its negative effects caused by a change of land use type and urbanization, Landsat TM images were used for extraction of urban surface temperature according to changes of land use over the last 15 years. These data are analyzed together with digital land use and topographic information. As a study result, it was found the urban heat island of the study area from 1985 to 1999 rapidly developed which showed a difference of mean temperature above + 2.0. Before the Bundang new town construction the temperature of the residential area was the same as a forest, but during the new town construction in 1991 analysis revealed the creation of an urban heat island. The temperature of a forest whose size is over 50% of the investigation area was lowest, and thus the presence of a forest is believed to have a direct cooling effect on the urban environment and its surroundings. The mean temperature of the residential and commercial areas in the study was found to be + 4.5 higher than the forest, and therefore this part of land use is believed to be the main factor causing the temperature increase of the urban heat island.
Resultados  1-10 de 2.278