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Getting the basic rights - the role of water, sanitation and hygiene in maternal and reproductive health: a conceptual framework.

Campbell, Oona M R; Benova, Lenka; Gon, Giorgia; Afsana, Kaosar; Cumming, Oliver
| Idioma(s): Inglés
OBJECTIVE: To explore linkages between water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and maternal and perinatal health via a conceptual approach and a scoping review. METHODS: We developed a conceptual framework iteratively, amalgamating three literature-based lenses. We then searched literature and identified risk factors potentially linked to maternal and perinatal health. We conducted a systematic scoping review for all chemical and biological WASH risk factors identified using text and MeSH terms, limiting results to systematic reviews or meta-analyses. The remaining 10 complex behavioural associations were not reviewed systematically. RESULTS: The main ways poor WASH could lead to adverse outcomes are via two non-exclusive categories: 1. 'In-water' associations: (a) Inorganic contaminants, and (b) 'water-system' related infections, (c) 'water-based' infections, and (d) 'water borne' infections. 2. 'Behaviour' associations: (e) Behaviours leading to water-washed infections, (f) Water-related insect-vector infections, and (g-i) Behaviours leading to non-infectious diseases/conditions. We added a gender inequality and a life course lens to the above framework to identify whether WASH affected health of mothers in particular, and acted beyond the immediate effects. This framework led us to identifying 77 risk mechanisms (67 chemical or biological factors and 10 complex behavioural factors) linking WASH to maternal and perinatal health outcomes. CONCLUSION: WASH affects the risk of adverse maternal and perinatal health outcomes; these exposures are multiple and overlapping and may be distant from the immediate health outcome. Much of the evidence is weak, based on observational studies and anecdotal evidence, with relatively few systematic reviews. New systematic reviews are required to assess the quality of existing evidence more rigorously, and primary research is required to investigate the magnitude of effects of particular WASH exposures on specific maternal and perinatal outcomes. Whilst major gaps exist, the evidence strongly suggests that poor WASH influences maternal and reproductive health outcomes to the extent that it should be considered in global and national strategies.
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Why "improved" water sources are not always safe.

Shaheed, Ameer; Orgill, Jennifer; Montgomery, Maggie A; Jeuland, Marc A; Brown, Joe
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Existing and proposed metrics for household drinking-water services are intended to measure the availability, safety and accessibility of water sources. However, these attributes can be highly variable over time and space and this variation complicates the task of creating and implementing simple and scalable metrics. In this paper, we highlight those factors - especially those that relate to so-called improved water sources - that contribute to variability in water safety but may not be generally recognized as important by non-experts. Problems in the provision of water in adequate quantities and of adequate quality - interrelated problems that are often influenced by human behaviour - may contribute to an increased risk of poor health. Such risk may be masked by global water metrics that indicate that we are on the way to meeting the world's drinking-water needs. Given the complexity of the topic and current knowledge gaps, international metrics for access to drinking water should be interpreted with great caution. We need further targeted research on the health impacts associated with improvements in drinking-water supplies.
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Challenges and opportunities associated with neglected tropical disease and water, sanitation and hygiene intersectoral integration programs.

Johnston, E Anna; Teague, Jordan; Graham, Jay P
| Idioma(s): Inglés
BACKGROUND: Recent research has suggested that water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions, in addition to mass drug administration (MDA), are necessary for controlling and eliminating many neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the integration of NTD and WASH programming in order to identify barriers to widespread integration and make recommendations about ideal conditions and best practices critical to future integrated programs. METHODS: Twenty-four in-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with key stakeholders in the global NTD and WASH sectors to identify barriers and ideal conditions in programmatic integration. RESULTS: The most frequently mentioned barriers to WASH and NTD integration included: 1) differing programmatic objectives in the two sectors, including different indicators and metrics; 2) a disproportionate focus on mass drug administration; 3) differences in the scale of funding; 4) siloed funding; and 5) a lack of coordination and information sharing between the two sectors. Participants also conveyed that a more holistic approach was needed if future integration efforts are to be scaled-up. The most commonly mentioned requisite conditions included: 1) education and advocacy; 2) development of joint indicators; 3) increased involvement at the ministerial level; 4) integrated strategy development; 5) creating task forces or committed partnerships; and 6) improved donor support. CONCLUSIONS: Public health practitioners planning to integrate NTD and WASH programs can apply these results to create conditions for more effective programs and mitigate barriers to success. Donor agencies should consider funding more integration efforts to further test the proof of principle, and additional support from national and local governments is recommended if integration efforts are to succeed. Intersectoral efforts that include the development of shared indicators and objectives are needed to foster conditions conducive to expanding effective integration programs.
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From joint thinking to joint action: a call to action on improving water, sanitation, and hygiene for maternal and newborn health.

Velleman, Yael; Mason, Elizabeth; Graham, Wendy; Benova, Lenka; Chopra, Mickey; Campbell, Oona M R; Gordon, Bruce; Wijesekera, Sanjay; Hounton, Sennen; Esteves Mills, Joanna; Curtis, Val; Afsana, Kaosar; Boisson, Sophie; Magoma, Moke; Cairncross, Sandy; Cumming, Oliver
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Yael Velleman and colleagues argue for stronger integration between the water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) and maternal and newborn health sectors. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
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Provision of private, piped water and sewerage connections and directly observed handwashing of mothers in a peri-urban community of Lima, Peru.

Oswald, William E; Hunter, Gabrielle C; Kramer, Michael R; Leontsini, Elli; Cabrera, Lilia; Lescano, Andres G; Gilman, Robert H
| Idioma(s): Inglés
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the association between improved water and sanitation access and handwashing of mothers living in a peri-urban community of Lima, Peru. METHODS: We observed 27 mothers directly, before and after installation of private, piped water and sewerage connections in the street just outside their housing plots, and measured changes in the proportion of faecal-hand contamination and hand-to-mouth transmission events with handwashing. RESULTS: After provision of water and sewerage connections, mothers were approximately two times more likely to be observed washing their hands within a minute of defecation, compared with when they relied on shared, external water sources and non-piped excreta disposal (RR = 2.14, 95% CI = 0.99-4.62). With piped water and sewerage available at housing plots, handwashing with or without soap occurred within a minute after 48% (10/21) of defecation events and within 15 min prior to 8% (11/136) of handling food events. CONCLUSIONS: Handwashing increased following installation of private, piped water and sewerage connections, but its practice remained infrequent, particularly before food-related events. Infrastructural interventions should be coupled with efforts to promote hygiene and ensure access to water and soap at multiple on-plot locations convenient to mothers.
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[The primary medical sanitary care and characteristics of drinking water supply of population].

Nechaev, V S; Saurina, O S
| Idioma(s):
The article considers characteristics of organization ofprimary medical sanitary care on territory with carcinogenic risks related to drinking water supply as exemplified by the Orlovskaia oblast. The importance of registration by local health authorities the sources of permanent chemical pollution of drinking water. The analysis of the State program of the Orlovskaia oblast "The development of health care in the Orlovskaia oblast in 2013-2020". The necessity of additional inclusion of issue related to healthy drinking water supply of population to prevent development of malignant neoplasms and prevalence of oncologic morbidity on oblast territory.
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An exploration of multilevel modeling for estimating access to drinking-water and sanitation.

Wolf, Jennyfer; Bonjour, Sophie; Prüss-Ustün, Annette
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Monitoring progress towards the targets for access to safe drinking-water and sanitation under the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) requires reliable estimates and indicators. We analyzed trends and reviewed current indicators used for those targets. We developed continuous time series for 1990 to 2015 for access to improved drinking-water sources and improved sanitation facilities by country using multilevel modeling (MLM). We show that MLM is a reliable and transparent tool with many advantages over alternative approaches to estimate access to facilities. Using current indicators, the MDG target for water would be met, but the target for sanitation missed considerably. The number of people without access to such services is still increasing in certain regions. Striking differences persist between urban and rural areas. Consideration of water quality and different classification of shared sanitation facilities would, however, alter estimates considerably. To achieve improved monitoring we propose: (1) considering the use of MLM as an alternative for estimating access to safe drinking-water and sanitation; (2) completing regular assessments of water quality and supporting the development of national regulatory frameworks as part of capacity development; (3) evaluating health impacts of shared sanitation; (4) using a more equitable presentation of countries' performances in providing improved services.
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Water supply, sanitation and health risks in Douala 5 municipality, Cameroon.

Sanou, Sobze Martin; Temgoua, Emile; Guetiya, Wadoum Raoul; Arienzo, Alyexandra; Losito, Francesca; Fokam, Joseph; Onohiol, James-Francis; Djeunang, Bruna; Zambou, Ngoufack François; Russo, Gianluca; Antonini, Giovanni; Panà, Augusto; Colizzi, Vittorio
| Idioma(s): Inglés
BACKGROUND: In the poor zones of sub-Saharan Africa, the conventional drinking water network is very weak. The populations use alternative groundwater sources which are wells and springs. However, because of urbanization, the groundwater sources are degrading gradually making pure, safe, healthy and odourless drinking water a matter of deep concern. There are many pollutants in groundwater due to seepage of organic and inorganic pollutants, heavy metals as well as microbiological contamination. This study was carried out in October 2012 and aimed to analyze the practices and behaviors of populations related to water supply that may constitute potential risks of microbiological contamination and emergence of waterborne diseases. METHOD: This study was carried out on a sample of 285 households, distributed in twelve principal quarters of the Douala V municipality in Cameroon. After data collection through the questionnaires, the selection of vulnerable quarters was done by the tabulation of some specific results on the questionnaire. The microbiological analysis was carried out using an innovative rapid test called "Micro Biological Survey (MBS)" that has been developed and patented by MBS srl, a recent spin-off of the University of Roma Tre. RESULT: We found out that 42.30% of households used water from drilled wells (forages), 33.80% from Cameroon National Water Company (CDE) distribution network, 9.50% from spring, and 9.40% used other source of water such as buying industrial mineral water. However, it should be noted that, as dangerous as it may be, wells ("puits" in French) water is used as permanent source of drinking water by 5% of households. In general, 63.2% of households affirmed not to have benefited the fitting of public water point. Moreover, among the quarters were the households affirmed to have benefited from the development of a public water point, 52.5% of these water point were no longer functional. From the obtained data we have assessed that 83% of wells analyzed are faecally contaminated and all the forages analyzed (100%) are not contaminated. The most affected people by water-related diseases are children under 5 years (43%). CONCLUSION: We highly recommend the City Council of Douala V to restrict the use of the contaminated wells and provide alternative water sources such as forages for public use and to ensure that microbiological quality of the new and already existing water sources is controlled regularly by the Technical Service.
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Integration of water, sanitation and hygiene for the control of neglected tropical diseases: a review of progress and the way forward.

Waite, Robyn C; Velleman, Yael; Woods, Geordie; Chitty, Alexandra; Freeman, Matthew C
| Idioma(s): Inglés
A WHO roadmap to control, eliminate and eradicate neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) proposes a public health approach integrating diverse prevention and treatment interventions. Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) has long been a recognized, yet under-prioritized intervention of global disease control efforts. Through collaboration with the WASH sector, efforts have been made to integrate WASH in NTD control. This article reviews progress made in recent years, explores mechanisms supporting advances, and identifies priorities and next steps for accelerating WASH integration. This paper reveals advances in collaboration between WASH and NTD sectors, resulting in progress made across areas of programming; research; advocacy and policy; training and capacity building; and mapping, data collection and monitoring. Face to face meetings between WASH and NTD sector experts with a clear purpose of informing wider sector discussions, and the development of actionable joint workplans, have been particularly critical in supporting progress. Priority next steps include building capacity for WASH programming among NTD control teams, coordination at the country level, and strengthening the epidemiological evidence and operational learning for joint WASH and NTD interventions. In order to accelerate WASH integration in NTD control through strong collaborations with the WASH sector, the NTD sector could make use of strong data management skills and advocacy opportunities.
Resultados  1-10 de 8.462